Se muestran los artículos pertenecientes a Marzo de 2015.
1. What is a cell? What are the main functions it performs?
The cell is the smallest unit of life (the smallest living unit of the human body).
Like all living things, it performs the basic life processes of nutrition, interaction and reproduction.
2. What do groups of cell form? Name and explain what the functions of the different tissues are.
Groups of similar cells that work together form tissues.
Different tissues perform specific functions in the body:
- Skin tissue covers the outside of the body.
- Fat, or adipose tissue, stores fats for energy.
- Bone tissue forms bones and supports the body.
- Muscle tissue moves the different body parts.
- Nervous tissue transmits information around the body and coordinates the body’s functions.
3. What do groups of tissues form? Name five of them.
Groups of tissues that work together to perform different functions form organs. For example: the brain, the stomach, the liver, the heart and the lungs.
4. What do groups of organs form? Name a few of them.
Groups of organs that work together to perform the same function form systems that perform the basic life processes of nutrition, interaction and reproduction. For example: the digestive system, the respiratory system, the nervous system and the male and female reproductive systems.
5. What are the basic life processes different organs perform? Classify the systems each basic life process belongs to.
The basic life processes different organs perform are nutrition, interaction and reproduction.
Nutrition process: digestive system, respiratory system, circulatory system and excretory system.
Interaction process: muscular system, skeletal system, nervous system and endocrine system.
Reproduction process: female and male reproductive systems.
6. Which are the parts of the digestive system? Name them in order.
The digestive system includes the alimentary canal and various glands that produce digestive juices. The parts of the digestive system are:
- Salivary glands
- Gall bladder
- Small intestine
- Large intestine
7. Where does digestion start? Explain it.
Digestion starts in the mouth, where our teeth cut and crush the food. Then the tongue mixes the food with saliva and forms a soft ball called bolus. The bolus goes to the pharynx and down the esophagus to the stomach.
8. How many parts has the small intestine got?
The small intestine has got three parts: the duodenum, the jejunum and the ileum.
9. Which part of the body produces saliva?
The salivary glands produce the liquid called saliva.
10. Where does the body store bile?
The bile is produced in the liver and stored in the gall bladder.
11. Define: bolus, chyme and chyle.
Bolus is the soft ball produced in our mouth when the food (which is cut and crushed by our teeth) is mixed with saliva.
When the stomach mixes the bolus with gastric juices it changes into a thick paste called chyme.
In our small intestine, the chyme mixes with intestinal juice, bile and pancreatic juice, producing a thin paste called chyle.
12. What are the five most important nutrients for our body. Explain why each one is important.
The five most important nutrients for our body are:
- Carbohydrates: our body breaks down carbohydrates into sugar for energy.
- Fats, which help our body to grown and stay warm. Our body stores fats for extra energy.
- Proteins: our body uses proteins to grow and repair tissues, like muscles and skin.
- Vitamins and minerals: our body needs vitamins and minerals to work properly and stay healthy.
- And water which is essential for our body.
13. Which food contains fat? How many portions should we eat a day?
We can get fats from oil, butter and cheese. We should eat 3 portions of fats a day.
14. What do pasta and bread contain? How many portions should we eat a day?
Pasta and bread contain carbohydrates. We should eat 6 portions of carbohydrates a day.
15. Which foods have got lots of proteins in? How many portions should we eat a day?
We get proteins form meat, fish, eggs, dairy products, beans and nuts. We should eat 2 portions a day.
16. Which foods have got lots of vitamins in? How many portions should we eat a day?
Fresh fruit and vegetables have got lots of vitamins (and minerals). We should eat 5 portions a day.
17. What does a healthy diet include?
A healthy diet should include all the nutrients that our body needs. This depends on your age, your sex and how much physical activity you do.
18. Which are the parts of the respiratory system? Name them in order.
The respiratory system has got various parts:
- Nasal passages
19. Which are the two actions breathing includes? Name and explain them.
Breathing includes two different actions:
- Inhalation: when you breathe in. The diaphragm moves down and the rib cage expands. This pulls air into the lungs.
- Exhalation: when you breathe out. The diaphragm moves up and the rib cage contracts. This pushes air out of the lungs.
20. Name and explain the exchange of gases that occurs when breathing.
When you breathe in, the air goes to your alveoli. The oxygen in the air goes through the walls of your alveoli and into your capillaries. Then your blood carries the oxygen to all the cells in your body.
Your blood also takes carbon dioxide away from your cells. In your lungs, this carbon dioxide goes through the walls of your capillaries and into your alveoli. Then it leaves your body when you breathe out.
kibubu es un espectáculo gestual, clownesco, que se apoya en la música y el juego teatral.
Xebas y Cocó forman una pareja artística de payasos con más ilusión que éxito. Para el futuro espectáculo que preparan, Xebas decide introducir un elemento con el que pretende dar la campanada: un gorila de verdad, de carne y hueso. Está convencido de que si lo doma y le enseña los diferentes números, su suerte cambiará y ganarán el aplauso del público. Sin embargo, no es tanto el gorila quien va a aprender de esta experiencia; Xebas y Cocó van a aprender una lección que jamás olvidarán.
“Un espectáculo sobre el respeto y la libertad”.
1. Why does the body need nutrients and oxygen? How are they carried around our bodies?
The body needs nutrients and oxygen to live. They are carried around our bodies by the circulatory system.
2. What does the body do with the substances it doesn’t need or which are harmful?
It eliminates them by the digestive and the excretory system.
3. What does the circulatory system do?
The circulatory system takes oxygen and nutrients to all the tissues of the body, it also picks up waste products like carbon dioxide, and it takes them to organs that eliminate them.
4. Which systems are involved in the process of waste elimination?
The digestive system and the excretory system are involved in the process of waste elimination.
5. Explain: pulmonary circulation and general circulation.
Blood flows around the body in two different circuits: pulmonary circulation and general circulation.
During pulmonary circulation, blood flows from the heart to the lungs. In the lungs, the blood releases carbon dioxide and picks up oxygen. Then the blood flows back to the heart. This oxygenated blood is a bright red colour.
During general circulation, oxygenated blood flows from the heart to the rest of the body. The oxygen goes into the tissues of the body and the blood picks up carbon dioxide. Then the blood flows back to the heart. This deoxygenated blood is a dark red colour.
6. What is the difference between oxygenated blood and deoxygenated blood?
The oxygenated blood is a bright red colour and the deoxygenated blood is a dark red colour.
7. What does the blood carry? What does it contains?
The blood carries oxygen to the heart and carbon dioxide to the lungs.
The blood contains liquid plasma and solid blood cells.
8. How many types of blood cells are there? Name them and say what their functions are.
There are three types of blood cells: red blood cells, white blood cells and platelets.
The red blood cells carry oxygen and also contain some carbon dioxide.
The white blood cells fight infections in the body.
The platelets help to form a solid clot when there is a cut in a blood vessel.
9. Where do the blood vessels go?
The blood vessels are special tubes that carry blood all around the body.
10. Which blood vessels carry blood to the right atrium?
The pulmonary veins carry blood to the right atrium.
11. What are the capillaries?
Capillaries are tiny blood vessels that connect the smallest arteries to the smallest veins.
12. How many chambers has the heart got? How are they called?
The heart contains four open spaces called chambers. The two upper chambers are the right atrium and the left atrium. The two lower chambers are the right ventricle and the left ventricle.
13. Which chamber of the heart pumps blood around the body?
The ventricles pump blood out of the body.
14. What does the septum do?
The septum divides the heart into two sides: right and left.
15. Where does blood pick up oxygen?
The blood picks up oxygen in the lungs.
16. What are the functions of the excretory system? Name the two main parts of the excretory system.
The excretory system eliminates waste products and harmful substances from the body.
The two main parts of the excretory system are the sweat glands and the urinary tract.
17. What do sweat glands do? What does sweat contain?
Sweat glands produce sweat which is a liquid that contains water, waste products and mineral salts.
18. What are the main parts of the urinary tract? And what are their functions?
The main parts of the urinary tract are the kidneys, the ureters, the bladder and the urethra.
19. Explain the process of eliminating waste products and harmful substances through the urinary tract.
The kidneys filter the blood to remove waste. Then they mix the waste with water to produce urine. The ureters carry urine from your kidneys to your bladder. The bladder stores urine until you go to the toilet. The urethra carries the urine out of your body when you go to the toilet.
20.Where are the kidneys? What vessels carry blood to the kidneys?
The kidneys are two bean-shaped organs that are next to your spinal column.
The vessels that carry blood to the kidneys are the renal arteries.