Se muestran los artículos pertenecientes a Febrero de 2014.
Cells are the Starting PointAll living organisms on Earth are divided in pieces called cells. There are smaller pieces to cells that include proteins and organelles. There are also larger pieces called tissuesand systems. Cells are small compartments that hold all of the biological equipment necessary to keep an organism alive and successful on Earth.
A main purpose of a cell is to organize. Cells hold a variety of pieces and each cell has a different set of functions. It is easier for an organism to grow and survive when cells are present. If you were only made of one cell, you would only be able to grow to a certain size. You don’t find single cells that are as large as a cow. Also, if you were only one cell you couldn’t have anervous system, no muscles for movement, and using the internet would be out of the question. The trillions of cells in your body make your life possible.
One Name, Many Types
There are many types of cells. In biology class, you will usually work with plant-like cells and animal-like cells. We say animal-like because an animal type of cell could be anything from a tinymicroorganism to a nerve cell in your brain. Plant cells are easier to identify because they have a protective structure called a cell wall made of cellulose. Plants have the wall; animals do not. Plants also have organelles like the chloroplast (the things that make them green) or large water-filled vacuoles.
We said that there are many types of cells. Cells are unique to each type of organism. Humans may have hundreds of types of cells. Some cells are used to carry oxygen (O2) through the blood (red blood cells) and others might be specific to the heart. If you look at very simple organisms, you will discover cells that have no defined nucleus (prokaryotes) and other cells that have hundreds of nuclei (multinucleated). The thing they all have in common is that they are compartments surrounded by some type of membrane.
Click on the link to see the hierarchy of life organization, from cells to biosphere.
Simple Future has two different forms in English: "will" and "be going to." Although the two forms can sometimes be used interchangeably, they often express two very different meanings. These different meanings might seem too abstract at first, but with time and practice, the differences will become clear. Both "will" and "be going to" refer to a specific time in the future.
[will + verb]
- You will help him later.
- Will you help him later?
- You will not help him later.
FORM Be Going To
[am/is/are + going to + verb]
- You are going to meet Jane tonight.
- Are you going to meet Jane tonight?
- You are not going to meet Jane tonight.
USE 1 "Will" to Express a Voluntary Action
"Will" often suggests that a speaker will do something voluntarily. A voluntary action is one the speaker offers to do for someone else. Often, we use "will" to respond to someone else’s complaint or request for help. We also use "will" when we request that someone help us or volunteer to do something for us. Similarly, we use "will not" or "won’t" when we refuse to voluntarily do something.
- I will send you the information when I get it.
- I will translate the email, so Mr. Smith can read it.
- Will you help me move this heavy table?
- Will you make dinner?
- I will not do your homework for you.
- I won’t do all the housework myself!
- A: I’m really hungry.
B: I’ll make some sandwiches.
- A: I’m so tired. I’m about to fall asleep.
B: I’ll get you some coffee.
- A: The phone is ringing.
B: I’ll get it.
USE 2 "Will" to Express a Promise
"Will" is usually used in promises.
- I will call you when I arrive.
- If I am elected President of the United States, I will make sure everyone has access to inexpensive health insurance.
- I promise I will not tell him about the surprise party.
- Don’t worry, I’ll be careful.
- I won’t tell anyone your secret.
USE 3 "Be going to" to Express a Plan
"Be going to" expresses that something is a plan. It expresses the idea that a person intends to do something in the future. It does not matter whether the plan is realistic or not.
- He is going to spend his vacation in Hawaii.
- She is not going to spend her vacation in Hawaii.
- A: When are we going to meet each other tonight?
B: We are going to meet at 6 PM.
- I’m going to be an actor when I grow up.
- Michelle is going to begin medical school next year.
- They are going to drive all the way to Alaska.
- Who are you going to invite to the party?
- A: Who is going to make John’s birthday cake?
B: Sue is going to make John’s birthday cake.
USE 4 "Will" or "Be Going to" to Express a Prediction
Both "will" and "be going to" can express the idea of a general prediction about the future. Predictions are guesses about what might happen in the future. In "prediction" sentences, the subject usually has little control over the future and therefore USES 1-3 do not apply. In the following examples, there is no difference in meaning.
- The year 2222 will be a very interesting year.
- The year 2222 is going to be a very interesting year.
- John Smith will be the next President.
- John Smith is going to be the next President.
- The movie "Zenith" will win several Academy Awards.
- The movie "Zenith" is going to win several Academy Awards.
[am/is/are + present participle]
- You are watching TV.
- Are you watching TV?
- You are not watching TV.
USE 1 Now
Use the Present Continuous to express the idea that something is happening now, at this very moment. It can also be used to show that something is not happening now.
- You are learning English now.
- You are not swimming now.
- Are you sleeping?
- I am sitting.
- I am not standing.
- Is he sitting or standing?
- They are reading their books.
- They are not watching television.
- What are you doing?
- Why aren’t you doing your homework?
USE 2 Longer Actions in Progress Now
In English, "now" can mean: this second, today, this month, this year, this century, and so on. Sometimes, we use the Present Continuous to say that we are in the process of doing a longer action which is in progress; however, we might not be doing it at this exact second.
Examples: (All of these sentences can be said while eating dinner in a restaurant.)
- I am studying to become a doctor.
- I am not studying to become a dentist.
- I am reading the book Tom Sawyer.
- I am not reading any books right now.
- Are you working on any special projects at work?
- Aren’t you teaching at the university now?
USE 3 Near Future
Sometimes, speakers use the Present Continuous to indicate that something will or will not happen in the near future.
- I am meeting some friends after work.
- I am not going to the party tonight.
- Is he visiting his parents next weekend?
- Isn’t he coming with us tonight?
THE FIVE KINGDOMS
Characteristics: All living things in this kingdom are unicellular organisms.
Examples: Bacteria which can be found almost everywhere (water, soil, food, air,..)
Characteristics: The living things in this kingdom can be unicellular or multicellular.
Examples: Unicellular organisms -> Protozoans: most of them are acquatic.
Multicellular organisms -> Algae: make their own food and use the energy from the sun to perform photosynthesis.
Characteristics: The members of this kingdom can be unicellular or multicellular. Most of them take nutrients from the remains of plants and animals. They are decomposers.
Examples: Unicellular organisms -> Yeast.
Multicellular organisms -> Mushrooms.
Characteristics: All plants are multicellular organisms. They make their own food and use the energy from the sun to perform photosynthesis. They don’t move.
Examples: oak tree, apple tree, pine,…
Characteristics: All animals are multicellular organisms. They are the most numerous group of living things. They can’t make their own food but they eat plants and other animals. Almost all animals can move around.
Examples: dolphin, spider, ladybird, eagle,…
THE ADVENTURES OF HUCKLEBERRY FINN
What is your favourite part of the book?
Click on the picture to learn a bit more about the book.
- What is the biosphere?
- What are the three basic life processes?
- Do all living things reproduce in the same way?
- How do people interact with their environment?
- What basic life process are we performing when we breathe?
- Are cells living things? How do we know?
- Have animal cells got a cell wall?
- According to the number of cells, what type of organisms exist?
- What type of organisms are bacteria?
- What are the main parts of the cell?
- What does a cell’s nucleus do?
- How many levels of life organization have we studied? Name them in order.
- What do we call similar tissues that work together to perform a function?
- In how many groups can we classify living things?
- What kingdom has only got unicellular organisms?
- Where do protozoans usually live?
- How are plants and algae alike?
- Which kingdom is mainly formed by decomposers?
- What are the names of some members of the Fungus Kingdom?
What a yummy cake I've made!!!!!!
Every February we celebrate Valentine’s Day by giving flowers, candy and cards to those we love. We do this in honor of Saint Valentine. You may be wondering, "Who is St. Valentine"? Time to brush up on your Valentine’s history!
The History of St. Valentine
The Roman Emperor Claudius II was fighting many wars. He wanted a strong army, but many men did not want to be soldiers. Claudius thought the men wanted to stay home to be with their wives and children instead of leaving to fight wars.
Claudius thought of an awful solution to his problem. He decided to cancel all marriages! No one in all of Rome could get married. Claudius thought that if the men couldn’t get married, the men would ignore the women and want to be soldiers.
Valentine, who was a priest, believed that people needed to get married. He thought that if they were not married, they would be tempted to sin by living together without being married. So he secretly and illegally married couples anyway! He performed the weddings in secret places, so the Roman soldiers would not find out.
But they did find out. Valentine was arrested and brought before the Emperor. The Emperor thought Valentine was a well spoken and wise young man, and encouraged him to stop being a Christian and become a loyal Roman. Valentine would not deny his beliefs, and he refused. He was sent to prison until he could be executed. While he was in prison, he sent out letters to his friends and asked to be prayed for by writing Remember your Valentine.
Valentine was killed on the 14th of February in the year 269 or 270. We celebrate Valentine’s Day on February 14th in honor of St. Valentine.
Check out the History of Valentine’s Day and other ideas for Valentine’s Day, including creative Valentine cards, Valentine party games, and many more fun activities.
Do you want to check the chart we’ve copied in class?
Click here to see it.
1) planned actions in the future
We sing at the party.
2) You are certain that sth. is going to happen in the future.
Look at that car! It crash into the yellow one.
to be (am, are, is) + + infinitive
|I play handball.|
|You play handball. |
You play handball.
|I play handball.|
|You play handball. |
You play handball.
You play handball.
Do not mix up with the Present Continuous!
|going to-future||Present Continuous|
|He’ the book.||He’the book.|
Click here to see the chart of the parts of plants.