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Present Perfect Verb Tense

1. Present Perfect - Form

 The present perfect of any verb is composed of two elements : the appropriate form of the auxiliary verb to have (present tense), plus the past participle of the main verb. The past participle of a regular verb is base+ed, e.g. played, arrived, looked



to have

past participle






to have + not

past participle





to have


past participle




Interrogative negative
to have + notsubjectpast participle

Example: to walk, present perfect


I have walked

I haven’t walked

Have I walked?

You have walked

You haven’t walked

Have you walked?

He, she, it has walked

He, she, it hasn’t walked

Has he,she,it walked

We have walked

We haven’t walked

Have we walked?

You have walked

You haven’t walked

Have you walked?

They have walked

They haven’t walked

Have they walked?

2. Present perfect, function

 The Present Perfect is used to indicate a link between the present and the past. The time of the action is before now but not specified, and we are often more interested in the resultthan in the action itself.

BE CAREFUL! There may be a verb tense in your language with a similar form, but the meaning is probably NOT the same.

The Present Perfect is used to describe:

  1. An action or situation that started in the past and continues in the present. Example: I have lived in Bristol since 1984 (= and I still do.)
  2. An action performed during a period that has not yet finished. Example: She has been to the cinema twice this week (= and the week isn’t over yet.)
  3. A repeated action in an unspecified period between the past and now. Example: We have visited Portugal several times.
  4. An action that was completed in the very recent past, (expressed by ’just’). Example: I have just finished my work.
  5. An action when the time is not important. Example: He has read ’War and Peace’(the result of his reading is important)

Note: When we want to give or ask details about when, where, who, we use the simple pastExample: He read ’War and Peace’ last week.


1. Actions started in the past and continuing in the present.

  • They haven’t lived here for years.
  • She has worked in the bank for five years.
  • We have had the same car for ten years.
  • Have you played the piano since you were a child?

2. When the time period referred to has not finished.

  • I have worked hard this week.
  • It has rained a lot this year.
  • We haven’t seen her today.

3. Actions repeated in an unspecified period between the past and now.

  • They have seen that film six times.
  • It has happened several times already.
  • She has visited them frequently.
  • We have eaten at that restaurant many times.

4. Actions completed in the very recent past (+just).

  • Have you just finished work?
  • have just eaten.
  • We have just seen her.
  • Has he just left?

5. When the precise time of the action is not important or not known.

  • Someone has eaten my soup!
  • Have you seen ’Gone with the Wind’?
  • She’s studied Japanese, Russian and English.
05/11/2013 00:37 miprimerzarzablog #. ENGLISH No hay comentarios. Comentar.



Simple Past

Present Perfect Simple

Irregular verbs: see 2nd column of irregular verbs

Example: I spoke

Irregular verbs: have/has + 3rd column of irregular verbs


I / you / we / they have spoken.
he / she / it has spoken

Regular verbs: have/has + infinitive + ed

Example: I / you / we / they have worked
he / she / it has worked



Exceptions when adding ’ed’:

  • when the final letter is e, only add d. Example: love - loved
  • after a short, stressed vowel, the final consonant is doubled. Example: admit - admitted
  • final l is always doubled in British English (not in American English). Example: travel - travelled
  • after a consonant, final y becomes i (but: not after a vowel). Example: worry - worried, but: play - played


In British English, the use of Simple Past and Present Perfect is quite strict. As soon as a time expression in the past is given, you have to use Simple Past. If there are no signal words, you must decide if we just talk about an action in the past or if its consequence in the present is important.

Certain time in the past or just / already /yet?

Do you want to express that an action happened at a certain time in the past (even if it was just a few seconds ago) or that an action has just /already / not yet happened?

Simple PastPresent Perfect Simple

certain time in the past

Example: I phoned Mary 2 minutes ago.

just / already / not yet

Example: I have just phoned Mary.

Certain event in the past or how often so far?

Do you want to express when a certain action took place or whether / how often an action has happened till now?

Simple PastPresent Perfect Simple

certain event in the past

Example: He went to Canada last summer.

whether / how often till now

Example: Have you ever been to Canada? I have been to Canada twice.

Emphasis on action or result?

Do you just want to express what happened in the past? Or do you want to emphasise the result (a past action’s consequence in the present)?

Simple PastPresent Perfect Simple

Emphasis on action

Example:  I bought a new bike. (just telling what I did in the past.)

Emphasis on result

Example: I have bought a new bike. (with this sentence I actually want to express that I have a new bike now.)

Signal Words

Simple Past   
   Present Perfect Simple
  • yesterday
  • ... ago
  • in 1990
  • the other day
  • last ...
  • just
  • already
  • up to now
  • until now / till now
  • ever
  • (not) yet
  • so far
  • lately / recently




05/11/2013 00:37 miprimerzarzablog #. ENGLISH Hay 3 comentarios.


Present Perfect + for and since

Using the present perfect, we can define a period of time before now by considering its duration, with for + a period of time, or by considering its starting point, with since + a point in time.

For + a period of time

  • for six years, for a week, for a month, for hours, for two hours.
  • I have worked here for five years.

Since + a point in time

  • since this morning, since last week, since yesterday,
  • since I was a child, since Wednesday, since 2 o’clock.
  • I have worked here since 1990.

present perfect with for

  • She has lived here for twenty years.
  • We have taught at this school for a long time.
  • Alice has been married for three months.
  • They have been at the hotel for a week.

present perfect with since

  • She has lived here since 1980.
  • We have taught at this school since 1965
  • Alice has been married since March 2nd.
  • They have been at the hotel since last Tuesday.


Present perfect + just, before, already and yet

PRESENT PERFECT + just and before


indicates that the action has happened in the very recent past and it is completed, e.g.
a. I’ve just lost my car keys and can’t leave for work.
b. Don’t call John, I’ve just done it.


Just can be placed before the main verb (past participle).


indicates the existence of past events, and emphasizing the pastness of the event with a redundant before e.g.
a. She has seen the movie before.
b. I have met her before the summer.


Before is usually placed at the end of the sentence.

PRESENT PERFECT + already and yet

refers to an action that has happened at an unspecified time before now. It suggests that there is no need for repetition, e.g.
a. I’ve already drunk three coffees this morning. (and you’re offering me another one!)
b. Don’t write to John, I’ve already done it.

It is also used in questions:

  • Have you already written to John?
  • Has she finished her homework already?


already can be placed before the main verb (past participle) or at the end of the sentence:

  • I have already been to Tokyo.
  • I have been to Tokyo already.


is used in negative statements and questions, to mean (not) in the period of time between before now and now, (not) up to and including the present. e.g.

  • Have you met Judy yet?
  • I haven’t visited the Tate Gallery yet.
  • Has he arrived yet?
  • They haven’t eaten yet.


Yet is usually placed at the end of the sentence.

05/11/2013 00:37 miprimerzarzablog #. ENGLISH No hay comentarios. Comentar.

08/11/2013 00:09 miprimerzarzablog #. FESTIVALS Hay 1 comentario.



Meteorologists study the weather by recording and analyzing data. You can become an amateur meteorologist by building your own weather station and keeping a record of your measurements.


11/11/2013 17:54 miprimerzarzablog #. SOCIAL AND NATURAL SCIENCE No hay comentarios. Comentar.



Didn’t you have time to copy the Earth’s Climate Zones Chart?

Do you need to check it?

Click on this link then.


«Millones de mujeres y niñas de todo el mundo son agredidas, golpeadas, violadas, mutiladas o incluso asesinadas en lo que constituyen atroces violaciones de sus derechos humanos.»

Ban Ki-moon, Secretario General de la Naciones Unidas



18/11/2013 09:19 miprimerzarzablog #. NOTICIAS No hay comentarios. Comentar.



The image of Spain’s climate abroad has traditionally been one of blue skies and sun, while in reality it is as varied as the country’s geography. At least five different climate zones characterize the Spanish climate due to the Iberian Peninsula’s position between tropical (hot) and polar (cold) wind currents.

Click on this link to copy the table of Spain’s Climate Zones we’ve seen in class.

18/11/2013 10:40 miprimerzarzablog #. SOCIAL AND NATURAL SCIENCE No hay comentarios. Comentar.



A guided tour of the BIG QUESTIONS:

What is the greenhouse effect?

What does global climate change mean?

19/11/2013 13:52 miprimerzarzablog #. SOCIAL AND NATURAL SCIENCE No hay comentarios. Comentar.



Los niños, son el futuro de nuestra especie, y como tal, han de ser tratados de una forma especial, estando sus derechos fundamentales por encima de cualquier interés, ya sea político, económico o religioso.

Para salvaguardar su integridad, existe la declaración de los derechos del niño, redactada en 1925 por Save The Children y enmendada y reorganizada en 1959 por las Naciones Unidas.

La infancia es un periodo en cual se configura nuestra persona, y por ello, los niños han de recibir una educación de calidad, una nutrición digna, protección frente a las enfermedades, y un derecho al ocio que en muchas ocasiones, forma a este igual o más que la propia escuela. Como colectivo especialmente vulnerable, las leyes han de ser más severas en lo que respecta a los abusos frente a ellos, ya sean de cualquier tipo, y las instituciones públicas, han de velar por su bienestar y su amparo, garantizando sus derechos en cualquier circunstancia.

Los derechos fundamentales del niño son:

  • A la vida.
  • A la salud.
  • Al descanso, el esparcimiento, el juego, la creatividad y las actividades recreativas.
  • A la libertad de expresión y a compartir sus puntos de vista con otros.
  • A un nombre y una nacionalidad.
  • A una familia.
  • A la protección durante los conflictos armados.
  • A la libertad de pensamiento, conciencia y religión.
  • A la protección contra el descuido o trato negligente.
  • A la protección contra el trabajo infantil y contra la explotación económica en general.
  • A la educación, que será gratuita y obligatoria por lo menos en las etapas elementales.

Queremos agradecer a todas las personas que, de una forma u otra, ayudan a que día a día los infantes puedan crecer felices, asegurando un futuro a nuestra especie,  respetando a los demás y por encima de todo, siendo felices, porque al fin y al cabo todos en mayor o menor medida, seguimos siendo niños.

Varias historias contadas con imágenes sobre la infancia

20/11/2013 00:02 miprimerzarzablog #. NOTICIAS No hay comentarios. Comentar.

Weather and Climate - QUESTIONS

  1. Define weather and climate.
  2. What are the four main atmospheric conditions?
  3. What is temperature? Which tool do we use to measure it?
  4. What is precipitation? Which tool do we use to measure it?
  5. What is wind? Which tool do we use to measure it?
  6. What is atmospheric or air pressure? Which tool do we use to measure it?
  7. What are the factors that influence the climate?
  8. How much does the temperature change when you climb a mountain?
  9. Why are winters usually milder in coastal areas?
  10. Name the three general categories of climate in the Earth and their specific climates.
  11. Name the climate zones in Spain.
  12. Write down the main characteristics of the Continental Mediterranean climate in Spain.
  13. Write down the main characteristics of the Oceanic climate in Spain.
  14. Write down the main characteristics of the Mountain climate in Spain.
  15. Write down the main characteristics of the Subtropical climate in Spain.
  16. Write down the main characteristics of the Mediterranean climate in Spain.
  17. What is the main cause of climate change today? What are the main consequences?
  18. Which are the effects of extreme atmospheric conditions?
  19. What do we call a long period of time without any rain?
  20. What happens when carbon dioxide accumulates in the Earth’s atmosphere?



Click here to download more Maps of Spain.

26/11/2013 13:53 miprimerzarzablog #. SOCIAL AND NATURAL SCIENCE No hay comentarios. Comentar.


A través de estos mapas interactivos os ofrecemos una amplia gama de recursos educativos para poder conocer la geografía española a todos los niveles de una manera amena.

Pinchad en la imagen para acceder a los juegos.

27/11/2013 11:35 miprimerzarzablog #. SOCIAL AND NATURAL SCIENCE No hay comentarios. Comentar.

28th November 2013: THANKSGIVING DAY


As we express our gratitude, we must never forget that the highest appreciation is not to utter words, but to live by them.

- John Fitzgerald Kennedy

28/11/2013 09:21 miprimerzarzablog #. FESTIVALS No hay comentarios. Comentar.


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