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Se muestran los artículos pertenecientes a Noviembre de 2011.


Fun Volcano Facts

Check out these fun volcano facts. Learn about hot magma, famous eruptions, volcanoes on other planets, volcanic gases, flowing lava and more.

Enjoy this wide range of strange and interesting facts about volcanoes:

  • Volcanoes are openings in the Earth’s surface. When they are active they can let ash, gas and hot magma escape in sometimes violent and spectacular eruptions.

  • The word volcano originally comes from the name of the Roman god of fire, Vulcan.

  • Volcanoes are usually located where tectonic plates meet. This is especially true for the Pacific Ring of Fire, an area around the Pacific Ocean where over 75% of the volcanoes on Earth are found.

  • While most volcanoes form near tectonic boundaries, they can also form in areas that contain abnormally hot rock inside the Earth. Known as mantle plumes, these hotspots are found at a number of locations around the globe with the most notable being in Hawaii.

  • Hot liquid rock under the Earth’s surface is known as magma, it is called lava after it comes out of a volcano.

  • Some famous volcanic eruptions of modern times include Mount Krakatoa in 1883, Novarupta in 1912, Mount St Helens in 1980 and Mt Pinatubo in 1991.

  • While we certainly have some big volcanoes here on Earth, the biggest known volcano in our solar system is actually on Mars. Its name is Olympus Mons and it measures a whooping 600km (373 miles) wide and 21km (13 miles) high.

  • The object with the most volcanic activity in our solar system is Io, one of Jupiter’s moons. Covered in volcanoes, its surface is constantly changing to the large amount of volcanic activity.

  • Most people think of volcanoes as large cone shaped mountains but that is just one type, others feature wide plateaus, fissure vents (cracks were lava emerges) and bulging dome shapes.

  • There are also volcanoes found on the ocean floor and even under icecaps, such as those found in Iceland.

  • Volcanoes can be active (regular activity), dormant (recent historical activity but now quiet) or extinct (no activity in historical times and unlikely to erupt again). While these terms are useful, scientists are more likely to describe volcanoes by characteristics such a how they formed, how they erupt and what their shape is.

  • Common volcanic gases include water vapor, carbon dioxide, sulfur dioxide, hydrogen chloride, hydrogen fluoride and hydrogen sulfide.

  • Volcanic eruptions can send ash high into the air, over 30km (17 miles) above the Earth’s surface.

  • Large volcanic eruptions can reflect radiation from the Sun and drop average temperatures on Earth by around half a degree. There have been several examples of this over the last century.

  • Pumice is a unique volcanic rock that can float in water. It can also be used


Learn more about the Volcanos by clicking here.

Now have a look at this video and be a Volcano Explorer!!

Do you want to learn more about latitude and longitude?

If you would like to explore the topic of latitude and longitude further, here are some interesting websites:

tiny globe Greenwich 2000 - information on the International Meridian Conference of 1884

tiny globe Latitude & Longitude - information from WorldAtlas.com

tiny globe Latitude and Longitude - information from nationalatlas.gov

tiny globe Latitude And Longitude Map Match Game - practice using latitude and longitude

08/11/2011 21:19 miprimerzarzablog #. SOCIAL AND NATURAL SCIENCE No hay comentarios. Comentar.

Welcome to Rocky’s journey around the rock cycle!

Rocky the rock

Hi, my name is Rocky
I am your guide on the journey around the rock cycle. The rock cycle is a continuous process that occurs over millions of years. It makes new rock, destroys old rock, and recycles the ingredients of the Earth’s crust over and over again!

If you want to join me on an amazing journey under the Earth click on the cycle below.
You can start wherever you want, but it is probably best to begin at Weathering and work your way around it from there.

The rock cycle Rocks at the Earth’s surface Weathering Erosion Deposition Metamorphism Uplift Uplift Uplift Compaction/cementation Extrusion Intrusion Melting


Have you mastered the rock cycle yet? Test yourself here!


Welcome to Weather Wiz Kids® a website especially designed for kids by meteorologist Crystal Wicker to allow you to learn more about the fascinating world of weather. 

(Click on the image)

14/11/2011 20:13 miprimerzarzablog #. SOCIAL AND NATURAL SCIENCE No hay comentarios. Comentar.


 Enjoy these fun weather facts for kids. Check out the amazing snow fall, rain fall and wind speed records while learning more about lightning, tornadoes and cyclones.

Read on for a range of interesting facts about weather and climate.

  • The highest temperature ever recorded in Antarctica is 14.6 °C (59 °F), recorded on January 5, 1974. More temperature facts.
  • The most rain fall ever recorded in 24 hours is 182.5 centimetres (71.9 inches) in Foc-Foc, La Réunion, during tropical cyclone Denise on January 8, 1966.

  • The most rain fall ever recorded in one year is 25.4 meters (1000 inches) in Cherrapunji, India.
  • The highest snow fall ever recorded in a one year period was 31.1 meters (1224 inches) in Mount Rainier, Washington State, United States, between February 19, 1971 and February 18, 1972.
  • The fastest wind speed ever recorded is 484±32 km/h (301±20 mph). This was a 3 second gust recorded by a Doppler on Wheels (DOW) radar unit in Oklahoma City on May 3, 1999.
  • The heaviest hailstone ever recorded weighed 1.0 kg (2.25 lb) and landed in Gopalganj District, Bangladesh on April 14, 1986.
  • Clouds can be categorized into a number of different types; these include cumulus, stratus, cirrus and nimbus.
  • The Earth experiences millions of lightning storms every year, they are incredible discharges of electricity from the atmosphere that can reach temperatures close to 54,000 °F (30,000 °C) and speeds of 60,000 m/s (130,000 mph).
  • The USA has more tornadoes than any other country in the world, averaging around 1200 a year. This is due largely to its unique geography which forms an area in central USA called “Tornado Alley” which is frequently hit by tornadoes.
  • Tropical cyclones (often referred to as hurricanes or typhoons) feature strong winds, driving rain, rough seas and areas of low atmospheric pressure. They frequently form in tropical areas of the globe and can do considerable damage to populated areas. Examples of this include the 1970 Bhola cyclone, Typhoon Nina which hit China in 1975 and more recently in 2005 when Hurricane Katrina which caused great devastation and loss of life when it hit southern parts of the USA.


Weather Facts

Enjoy these fun weather facts for kids. Check out the amazing snow fall, rain fall and wind speed records while learning more about lightning, tornadoes and cyclones.

Read on for a range of interesting facts about weather and climate.

14/11/2011 20:18 miprimerzarzablog #. SOCIAL AND NATURAL SCIENCE No hay comentarios. Comentar.

20 de Noviembre: Día Internacional de la Infancia


En 1956, la Asamblea General de Naciones Unidas recomendó que se instituyera en todos los países un Día Universal de la Infancia, que se consagraría a la fraternidad y a la comprensión entre los niños y las niñas del mundo entero y se destinaría a actividades propias para promover el bienestar de los niños y niñas del mundo.

El 20 de noviembre se conmemora la fecha en que la Asamblea General aprobó la Declaración sobre los Derechos del Niño en 1959 y la Convención sobre los Derechos del Niño en 1989. Por ello, el 20 de noviembre ha pasado a ser el Día Universal de los Niños y las Niñas.

La Convención sobre los Derechos del Niño

Ya han transcurrido más de veinte años desde que se aprobó dicha Convención y todos los países del mundo (salvo Estados Unidos y Somalia) la han ratificado, convirtiéndose así en el instrumento de Derechos Humanos más ampliamente refrendado en la historia de la humanidad.

A pesar de este hecho, sabemos que desgraciadamente se siguen violando diariamente los derechos de millones de niños y niñas en todos los países del mundo y, por lo tanto, todas las instituciones públicas y privadas, por un lado, y la sociedad civil, por otro, deben responder a este reto y seguir luchado para que la Convención se convierta en una realidad en beneficio de los niños y niñas del mundo. Para esta movilización de toda la sociedad, tanto nacional como internacional, sigue siendo una prioridad el artículo 42 de dicha Convención, el cual compromete a los Estados Partes "a dar a conocer ampliamente los principios y disposiciones de la Convención por medios eficaces y apropiados, tanto a los adultos como a los niños".

El Preámbulo de la Convención sobre los Derechos del Niño:

  * recuerda los principios fundamentales de las Naciones Unidas y las disposiciones precisas de algunos tratados y declaraciones relativos a los Derechos Humanos;
  * reafirma la necesidad de proporcionar a los niños cuidado y asistencia especiales en razón de su vulnerabilidad;
  * subraya de manera especial:
1. la responsabilidad primordial de la familia por lo que respecta a la protección y a la asistencia;
2. la necesidad de una protección jurídica y no jurídica de los niños;
3. la importancia del respeto de los valores culturales de la comunidad del niño o la niña;
4. el papel crucial de la cooperación internacional para que los derechos de los niños se hagan realidad.

En la página web de rayuela encontrarás textos, cuentos y juegos para trabajar todos y cada uno de los Derechos de los niños y las niñas. ¡Para aprender divirtiéndonos!

PDF - 268 KBLa Convención adaptada para los más jóvenes Documento elaborado por Unicef

20/11/2011 18:47 miprimerzarzablog #. NOTICIAS No hay comentarios. Comentar.



Simple Past

Present Perfect Simple

Irregular verbs: see 2nd column of irregular verbs

Example: I spoke

Irregular verbs: have/has + 3rd column of irregular verbs


I / you / we / they have spoken.
he / she / it has spoken

Regular verbs: have/has + infinitive + ed

Example: I / you / we / they have worked
he / she / it has worked


Exceptions when adding ’ed’:

  • when the final letter is e, only add d. Example: love - loved
  • after a short, stressed vowel, the final consonant is doubled. Example: admit - admitted
  • final l is always doubled in British English (not in American English). Example: travel - travelled
  • after a consonant, final y becomes i (but: not after a vowel). Example: worry - worried, but: play - played


In British English, the use of Simple Past and Present Perfect is quite strict. As soon as a time expression in the past is given, you have to use Simple Past. If there are no signal words, you must decide if we just talk about an action in the past or if its consequence in the present is important.

Certain time in the past or just / already / yet?

Do you want to express that an action happened at a certain time in the past (even if it was just a few seconds ago) or that an action has just / already / not yet happened?

Simple Past Present Perfect Simple

certain time in the past

Example: I phoned Mary 2 minutes ago.

just / already / not yet

Example: I have just phoned Mary.

Certain event in the past or how often so far?

Do you want to express when a certain action took place or whether / how often an action has happened till now?

Simple Past Present Perfect Simple

certain event in the past

Example: He went to Canada last summer.

whether / how often till now

Example: Have you ever been to Canada? I have been to Canada twice.

Emphasis on action or result?

Do you just want to express what happened in the past? Or do you want to emphasise the result (a past action’s consequence in the present)?

Simple Past Present Perfect Simple

Emphasis on action

Example:  I bought a new bike. (just telling what I did in the past.)

Emphasis on result

Example: I have bought a new bike. (with this sentence I actually want to express that I have a new bike now.)

Signal Words

Simple Past  
   Present Perfect Simple
  • yesterday
  • ... ago
  • in 1990
  • the other day
  • last ...
  • just
  • already
  • up to now
  • until now / till now
  • ever
  • (not) yet
  • so far
  • lately / recently



Simple Past Present Perfect Simple
certain event in the past Example:He went to Canada last summer. whether / how often till now Example:Have you ever been to Canada? / I have been to Canada twice.
22/11/2011 21:41 miprimerzarzablog #. ENGLISH Hay 3 comentarios.

When is Thanksgiving Day?

Date of Thanksgiving Day varies every year and several countries celebrate it in different time of the year. Given here is information on Thanksgiving Day date in US and Canada for the past, present and coming years. 

When is Thanksgiving Day in USA?
Thanksgiving Day finds its roots in America. It is celebrated with lot of fervor and euphoria on the fourth Thursday in the month of November (in 2011 - November 24). For the people in US Thanksgiving is a time for merrymaking, shopping, family reunion, feasts and family dinners. People also take time to thank God for his constant grace and for all the material possessions man enjoys. For many Thanksgiving is also the time to thank near and dear ones and being grateful for their kindness.

When is Thanksgiving Day in Canada?
Thanksgiving Day in Canada is, however, celebrated on the second Monday in the month of October (in 2011 - October 10) every year. Canada celebrates Thanksgiving Day a month earlier because autumn season starts early in Canada than in America. 

Thanksgiving Day Symbols:

Cornucopia is the most common symbol of a harvest festival. A Horn shaped container, it is filled with abundance of the Earth’s harvest. It is also known as the ’horn of plenty’. The traditional cornucopia was a curved goat’s horn filled to brim with fruits and grains. According to Greek legend, Amalthea (a goat) broke one of her horns and offered it to Greek God Zeus as a sign of reverence. As a sign of gratitude, Zeus later set the goat’s image in the sky also known as constellation Capricorn.

The celebration of Thanksgiving will be incomplete without the legendary Turkey. It derives its name from the ’turk turk’ sounds it makes when scared. Turkey was at one time being considered as the national symbol of America. Benjamin Franklin felt that turkey was the right choice because it was a good runner and had a sharp sight. A bald eagle later became the national symbol of America. 
The famous ’Turkey’ adorns the table of every household as a main course during the celebration. The customary dinner reminds of the ’Four Wild Turkeys’ served at the ’First Thanksgiving Feast’.     
Another modern staple at almost every Thanksgiving table is the customary ’Pumpkin Pie’. It is not sure whether pumpkin was one of the dishes in the first thanksgiving dinner. Pilgrims probably made a pumpkin dish sweetened with honey or syrup. They were however a part of all traditional meals long before the arrival of pilgrims. Pumpkin leaves were also used as salads. According to historians, other seasonal vegetables included squash. People at that time were not particularly fond of vegetables, they were mostly meat eaters. Pumpkin is one of the important symbols of the harvest festival and has been an American-favourite for over 400 years now.
24/11/2011 20:11 miprimerzarzablog #. FESTIVALS No hay comentarios. Comentar.

Hope you like this beautiful song and the amazing videoclip...

Have a great week!!!

28/11/2011 00:17 miprimerzarzablog #. ART Hay 3 comentarios.

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