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Se muestran los artículos pertenecientes al tema SOCIAL AND NATURAL SCIENCE.

APPS to create Timelines

I’ve found a few websites with recommended apps to create Timelines. Here they are:

Top 20 Sites and Apps for creating Timelines: Tech & Learning

5 great Ipad Apps to create timelines: Education Technology & Mobile Learning

Seis Apps para crear líneas del tiempo: AulaPlaneta

Hope you find them helpful!!!

                                     

25/01/2016 13:31 miprimerzarzablog #. SOCIAL AND NATURAL SCIENCE No hay comentarios. Comentar.

SOCIAL SCIENCE TASK

                       

In your computer or tablet, make a vertical timeline of all the periods in History (prehistory and history) until the 19th century.

Mark the most relevant events of each period: add pictures, dates and a short explanation.

DEATH DATE: 28th January

22/01/2016 10:11 miprimerzarzablog #. SOCIAL AND NATURAL SCIENCE No hay comentarios. Comentar.

QUESTIONS: The Reproductive System

  1. What are the primary sex characteristics?
  2. What are the secondary sex characteristics?
  3. When do secondary sex characteristics start appearing?
  4. When do boys usually go through puberty?
  5. What happens to a girl’s hips during puberty?
  6. What parts of a woman’s body produce egg cells?
  7. What is the menstrual cycle? Explain it.
  8. How long is a woman’s menstrual cycle?
  9. What are the external sex organs of the female reproductive system?
  10. What are the internal organs of the female reproductive system? Where are they located?
  11. What are the female gametes called?
  12. What is the muscular canal between the vulva and the uterus called?
  13. What parts of the male reproductive system are external?
  14. Which parts of the man’s body produce sperm cells?
  15. What is the bag of skin around the testicles called?
  16. What do the seminal vesicles produce?
  17. What protects the glans at the end of the penis?
  18. How does fertilisation occur?
  19. When does the embryo join itself to the wall of the uterus?
  20. What does the afterbirth include?

Questions and Answers: CIRCULATORY and EXCRETORY SYSTEMS

1. Why does the body need nutrients and oxygen? How are they carried around our bodies?

The body needs nutrients and oxygen to live. They are carried around our bodies by the circulatory system.

2. What does the body do with the substances it doesn’t need or which are harmful?

It eliminates them by the digestive and the excretory system.

3. What does the circulatory system do?

The circulatory system takes oxygen and nutrients to all the tissues of the body, it also picks up waste products like carbon dioxide, and it takes them to organs that eliminate them.

4. Which systems are involved in the process of waste elimination?

The digestive system and the excretory system are involved in the process of waste elimination.

5. Explain: pulmonary circulation and general circulation.

Blood flows around the body in two different circuits: pulmonary circulation and general circulation.

During pulmonary circulation, blood flows from the heart to the lungs. In the lungs, the blood releases carbon dioxide and picks up oxygen. Then the blood flows back to the heart. This oxygenated blood is a bright red colour.

During general circulation, oxygenated blood flows from the heart to the rest of the body. The oxygen goes into the tissues of the body and the blood picks up carbon dioxide. Then the blood flows back to the heart. This deoxygenated blood is a dark red colour.

6. What is the difference between oxygenated blood and deoxygenated blood?

The oxygenated blood is a bright red colour and the deoxygenated blood is a dark red colour.

 7. What does the blood carry? What does it contains?

The blood carries oxygen to the heart and carbon dioxide to the lungs.

The blood contains liquid plasma and solid blood cells.

8. How many types of blood cells are there? Name them and say what their functions are.

There are three types of blood cells: red blood cells, white blood cells and platelets.

The red blood cells carry oxygen and also contain some carbon dioxide.

The white blood cells fight infections in the body.

The platelets help to form a solid clot when there is a cut in a blood vessel.

9. Where do the blood vessels go?

The blood vessels are special tubes that carry blood all around the body.

10.  Which blood vessels carry blood to the right atrium?

The pulmonary veins carry blood to the right atrium.

11. What are the capillaries?

Capillaries are tiny blood vessels that connect the smallest arteries to the smallest veins.

12.  How many chambers has the heart got? How are they called?

The heart contains four open spaces called chambers. The two upper chambers are the right atrium and the left atrium. The two lower chambers are the right ventricle and the left ventricle.

13.  Which chamber of the heart pumps blood around the body?

The ventricles pump blood out of the body.

14.  What does the septum do?

The septum divides the heart into two sides: right and left.

15.  Where does blood pick up oxygen?

The blood picks up oxygen in the lungs.

16.  What are the functions of the excretory system? Name the two main parts of the excretory system.

The excretory system eliminates waste products and harmful substances from the body.

The two main parts of the excretory system are the sweat glands and the urinary tract.

17.  What do sweat glands do? What does sweat contain?

Sweat glands produce sweat which is a liquid that contains water, waste products and mineral salts.

18.  What are the main parts of the urinary tract? And what are their functions?

The main parts of the urinary tract are the kidneys, the ureters, the bladder and the urethra.

19.  Explain the process of eliminating waste products and harmful substances through the urinary tract.

The kidneys filter the blood to remove waste. Then they mix the waste with water to produce urine. The ureters carry urine from your kidneys to your bladder. The bladder stores urine until you go to the toilet. The urethra carries the urine out of your body when you go to the toilet.

20.Where are the kidneys? What vessels carry blood to the kidneys?

The kidneys are two bean-shaped organs that are next to your spinal column.

The vessels that carry blood to the kidneys are the renal arteries.

Questions and Answers: DIGESTION and RESPIRATION

1. What is a cell? What are the main functions it performs?

The cell is the smallest unit of life (the smallest living unit of the human body).

Like all living things, it performs the basic life processes of nutrition, interaction and reproduction.

2. What do groups of cell form? Name and explain what the functions of the different tissues are.

Groups of similar cells that work together form tissues.

Different tissues perform specific functions in the body:

-      Skin tissue covers the outside of the body.

-      Fat, or adipose tissue, stores fats for energy.

-      Bone tissue forms bones and supports the body.

-      Muscle tissue moves the different body parts.

-      Nervous tissue transmits information around the body and coordinates the body’s functions.

 3. What do groups of tissues form? Name five of them.

Groups of tissues that work together to perform different functions form organs. For example: the brain, the stomach, the liver, the heart and the lungs.

 4. What do groups of organs form? Name a few of them.

Groups of organs that work together to perform the same function form systems that perform the basic life processes of nutrition, interaction and reproduction. For example: the digestive system, the respiratory system, the nervous system and the male and female reproductive systems.

 5. What are the basic life processes different organs perform? Classify the systems each basic life process belongs to.

The basic life processes different organs perform are nutrition, interaction and reproduction.

Nutrition process: digestive system, respiratory system, circulatory system and excretory system.

Interaction process: muscular system, skeletal system, nervous system and endocrine system.

Reproduction process: female and male reproductive systems.

 6. Which are the parts of the digestive system? Name them in order.

The digestive system includes the alimentary canal and various glands that produce digestive juices. The parts of the digestive system are:

  1. Mouth
  2. Pharynx
  3. Salivary glands
  4. Esophagus
  5. Stomach
  6. Liver
  7. Pancreas
  8. Gall bladder
  9. Small intestine
  10. Large intestine
  11. Rectum

 7. Where does digestion start? Explain it.

Digestion starts in the mouth, where our teeth cut and crush the food. Then the tongue mixes the food with saliva and forms a soft ball called bolus. The bolus goes to the pharynx and down the esophagus to the stomach.

8. How many parts has the small intestine got?

The small intestine has got three parts: the duodenum, the jejunum and the ileum.

9. Which part of the body produces saliva?

The salivary glands produce the liquid called saliva.

 10. Where does the body store bile?

The bile is produced in the liver and stored in the gall bladder.

 11. Define: bolus, chyme and chyle.

Bolus is the soft ball produced in our mouth when the food (which is cut and crushed by our teeth) is mixed with saliva.

When the stomach mixes the bolus with gastric juices it changes into a thick paste called chyme.

In our small intestine, the chyme mixes with intestinal juice, bile and pancreatic juice, producing a thin paste called chyle.

12. What are the five most important nutrients for our body. Explain why each one is important.

The five most important nutrients for our body are:

-      Carbohydrates: our body breaks down carbohydrates into sugar for energy. 

-      Fats, which help our body to grown and stay warm. Our body stores fats for extra energy.

-      Proteins: our body uses proteins to grow and repair tissues, like muscles and skin.

-      Vitamins and minerals: our body needs vitamins and minerals to work properly and stay healthy.

-      And water which is essential for our body.

 13. Which food contains fat? How many portions should we eat a day?

We can get fats from oil, butter and cheese. We should eat 3 portions of fats a day.

14. What do pasta and bread contain? How many portions should we eat a day?

Pasta and bread contain carbohydrates. We should eat 6 portions of carbohydrates a day.

15. Which foods have got lots of proteins in? How many portions should we eat a day?

We get proteins form meat, fish, eggs, dairy products, beans and nuts. We should eat 2 portions a day.

16. Which foods have got lots of vitamins in? How many portions should we eat a day?

Fresh fruit and vegetables have got lots of vitamins (and minerals). We should eat 5 portions a day.

17. What does a healthy diet include?

A healthy diet should include all the nutrients that our body needs. This depends on your age, your sex and how much physical activity you do.

18. Which are the parts of the respiratory system? Name them in order.

The respiratory system has got various parts:

  1. Nasal passages
  2. Pharynx
  3. Larynx
  4. Trachea
  5. Bronchi
  6. Lungs
  7. Bronchioles
  8. Alveoli

19. Which are the two actions breathing includes? Name and explain them.

Breathing includes two different actions:

-      Inhalation: when you breathe in. The diaphragm moves down and the rib cage expands. This pulls air into the lungs.

-      Exhalation: when you breathe out. The diaphragm moves up and the rib cage contracts. This pushes air out of the lungs.

20. Name and explain the exchange of gases that occurs when breathing.

When you breathe in, the air goes to your alveoli. The oxygen in the air goes through the walls of your alveoli and into your capillaries. Then your blood carries the oxygen to all the cells in your body.

Your blood also takes carbon dioxide away from your cells. In your lungs, this carbon dioxide goes through the walls of your capillaries and into your alveoli. Then it leaves your body when you breathe out.


FOOD PYRAMID

Nutrition consist of extracting nutrients and oxygen distributing them around the body and excreting the residues.


The different nutrients contained in food are:

- PROTEINS produce our body tissues and are essential for the functioning of our cells.

- CARBOHYDRATES are the most important source of energy; they include starches, which are found in cereals and potatoes, and sugars which are abundant in fruit.

- FATS give us energy. There are both animal and vegetable fats.

- MINERALS control growth and are important for the functioning of the nervous system, the contraction of muscles and the coagulation of blood.

- VITAMINS control the functioning of many of the organs in our body and help us to stay healthy.


We must follow a healthy and balanced diet!!!!


HOW THE BODY WORKS

Click on the image to visit the KidsHealth website, with plenty of information, activities, quizzes, movies and lots of interesting facts about the human body.

 

Proyecto: LA UNIÓN EUROPEA

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Prepara una presentación en el formato que tú quieras (sé creativo; utiliza tu imaginación), sobre el país de la Unión Europea que te haya correspondido e incluye los siguientes puntos:

-   Nombre del país y su capital.

-   Año de anexión a la Unión Europea.

-   Bandera.

-   Ciudades importantes.

-   Población y superficie.

-   Países fronterizos.

-   Lengua/s oficial/es.

-   Moneda.

-   Religión.

-   Sistema político. Líder político/monarca.

-   Ríos y montañas importantes.

-   Gastronomía, monumentos, personajes famosos, éxitos deportivos, arte, música,…

-   Un poco de historia.

 

Visita las siguientes páginas web para obtener más información:

europa.eu 

eurochavales

 

THE COLOURS OF OUR FLAG

  • In the times of King Carlos III, the Spanish flag was white, with a Picture of the royal coat of arms in the centre. White was the colour of the Bourbon royal dynasty. In other countries where the Bourbons ruled, such as France and Italy, the national flags were also white.

  • In those times, warships and trading ships used flags to show their nationality, but many countries had flags with the same colours. It was difficult to see the differences at a distance or when it wasn’t windy. When people saw a strange ship, they didn’t know its nationality until the ship was very close, and that could be dangerous during a war!

  • King Carlos III decided to change his country’s flag. He organised a competition and people created 12 different designs. The king finally chose a red and yellow design because it was easy to see on ships from a distance. That is why red and yellow are the colours of Spain’s flag today.

 

Questions: CONTEMPORARY SPAIN

  1. Who was the king of Spain on 2nd May 1808?
  2. Where was the Constitution of 1812 signed?
  3. Who became king after the War of Independence?
  4. Who was the first constitutional monarch? When did she rule? Which political group wanted her to have more power?
  5. When did the First Republic start? When did it finished?
  6. Who became king after the First Republic?
  7. When did Primo de Rivera establish a dictatorship?
  8. When did Alfonso XIII leave Spain?
  9. When did the Second Republic start? When did it finished?
  10. What happened in Spain during the Second Republic?
  11. When did the Spanish Civil War start? When did it end? Who won the war? What happened as a result?
  12. Who did the nationalists support during the Civil War?
  13. Who was General Franco? What form of government did he establish in Spain?
  14. When did Franco die?
  15. Who was Spain’s first president after Franco died?
  16. How do we call the years after Franco dictatorship and before the democratic elections?
  17. What happened on 23rd February 1981?
  18. Which political party won the elections in 1982?
  19. Which political party was in power in 1998?
  20. What style of buildings did the architect Antonio Gaudí design?
  21. What type of artist were Chillida and Gargallo?
  22. What style of painting was Salvador Dalí famous for using?
  23. Look for the definitions of the following concepts in a dictionary: military coup, republic, monarchy, dictatorship, democracy and strike.

14 de noviembre: DÍA MUNDIAL DE LA DIABETES

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El Día Mundial de la Diabetes (DMD) es la campaña de concienciación sobre la diabetes más importante del mundo. Fue instaurado por la Federación Internacional de Diabetes (FID) y la Organización Mundial de la Salud (OMS) en 1991, como respuesta al alarmante aumento de los casos de diabetes en el mundo. En 2007, Naciones Unidas celebró por primera vez este día tras la aprobación de la Resolución en diciembre de 2006 del Día Mundial de la Diabetes, lo que convirtió al ya existente Día Mundial de la Diabetes en un día oficial de la salud de la ONU.

Pincha aquí si quieres seguir leyendo...

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Questions: THE MODERN AGE

  1. Which event marked the start of Modern Age? When did it happen?
  2. Which event marked the end of Modern Age? When did it happen?
  3. Which were the three groups in which society was divided during Modern Age?
  4. Which were the privileged social groups? And the ones who had to paid taxes?
  5. What was the name of the social and economic group that became a powerful group? Who was in this group?
  6. Which were the groups that had their own courts of law?
  7. Who were the ones who worked on the land?
  8. What are the important changes that occurred during the Modern Age?
  9. What did European monarchs do at the beginning of the 16th century?
  10. Write down the six things the Catholic Kings did during their reign?
  11. Who was the first King of the Habsburg dynasty in Spain? How was he called?
  12. Write down the name of the Habsburg kings in order.
  13. When did Felipe II rule Spain?
  14. What was the dynasty that replaced the Habsburgs? Who were the kings of this dynasty during the 18th century?
  15. Who was the King of Spain when the Royal Academies were created?
  16. Write three more things that Carlos III did to modernize Spain in the 18th century.
  17. Which are the main artistic styles of the Modern Age?
  18. Which artistic style uses lots of dramatic effects?
  19. In what artistic style did El Greco paint?
  20. When was the Golden Age in Spain? Write down the name of two writers and two painters of that period.

 

La Edad Media

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Pincha aquí para aprender más sobre LA EDAD MEDIA.

Ahora pincha en la imagen para jugar a CABALLEROS Y CASTILLOS.


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FUN FACTS ABOUT THE MIDDLE AGES

1. The Middle Ages refers to a time in European history from 400-1500 AD. It occurred between the fall of the Roman Empire and the discovery of America (beginning of the Renaissance). 

2. Historians usually divide the Middle Ages into three smaller periods called the Early Middle Ages, the High Middle Ages, and the Late Middle Ages.

3. During much of the Middle Ages, people in Europe were fighting against the Islamic Empire to take back the Eastern Mediterranean, especially Jerusalem, for the Christian religion. These wars were called the Crusades

4. The Middle Ages was defined by a Feudal system in much of Europe. This system consisted of kings, lords, knights, vassals and peasants. The people who were part of the church played an important part also. When a person was born into a certain group, they rarely moved to another level.

5. The Feudal system was the law of the land, and the way that the upper class maintained control over the lower class. The upper class provided protection to the lower class and in exchange, the lower class worked for the upper class. The kings and lords lived in castles and were attended to by their personal servants, called vassals. The soldiers that fought for the king and lords were called knights. When conflict arose, the peasants would leave their fields and villages and come into the safety of the castle walls.

6. Kings ruled by what they believed was their "Divine Right". This meant they believed God made them the King, and their kingdom was passed down through generations.

7. Many fairy tales have their roots in the Middle Ages. When you read about castles and the characters that lived and around them, these stories are being told about this time in history.

8. Castles were built for the lords and kings who lived in them. The bigger and stronger the castle was, the wealthier the person who had it built was. The poor lived in huts made from sticks, straw and mud.

 9. The church had a great influence over the people. The peasants believed that the harder they worked, the more of their money they gave to the church, and the more they served the church, the better the after-life would be for them.

10. By the early 1300s, however, Europe suffered from both war and disease. The wars were made much worse by the Black Death, or bubonic plague, which spread along the Silk Road from China to Europe starting in 1328, killing millions of people and causing the collapse of the Mongol Empire. By the 1400s, after the plague, Europe looked very different, and the wars were over, and Middle Ages were coming to an end.

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MIDDLE AGES

-  THE END OF ANCIENT HISTORY

  • Roman empire became too large and it was divided into 2 parts:

    WESTERN ROMAN EMPIRE (ROME)
    EASTERN ROMAN EMPIRE (CONSTANTINOPLE)
  • Barbarians tribes moved into Roman territory, Rome was invaded in 476 C.E which was the end of the Ancient Period.

- GERMANIC PEOPLES

  • Many barbarians were Germanic tribes from Central Europe.

  • Most were farmers, so they lived in the countryside.

  • They had their culture but learned to speak LATIN, adopted ROMAN LAWS and they converted to CHRISTIANITY.

  • Society was divided into 3 main groups: KNIGHTS, CLERGY and PEASANTS.

  • A new social and economic system was developed: FEUDALISM.

 

- THE VISIGOTHIC KINGDOM OF TOLEDO

  • The Visigoths were an important Germanic tribe. They arrived in Roman Hispania in 507 C.E.
  • Visigoths established a new kingdom in the Western Roman Empire, with its capital city in Toledo.
  • That was the beginning of the Middle Ages in Spain.

 

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Los Celtas

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Pincha en el link para aprender más sobre LA CULTURA CELTA.

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La Civilización Romana

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Pincha en el link para aprender más sobre LA CIVILIZACIÓN ROMANA.

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La Antigua Grecia

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Pincha en el link para ver aprender más sobre la LA ANTIGUA GRECÍA.

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Death in Rome

Be a Roman sleuth - use your detective skills to unravel the events behind a mysterious death. You have until dawn to investigate the crime scene, and crack the case.

Piece together the puzzle using their evidence, eye-witness testimonies, and perhaps a little detective’s intuition.

Launch the game

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Questions: PREHISTORY and ANCIENT TIMES

  1. What is history? What are the 4 main objectives of History?
  2. How do we measure the time in History?
  3. Write the 5 periods in which we divide History and when they begin and end.
  4. When did Prehistory begin? When did Prehistory finish?
  5. Write the periods in which we can divide Prehistory.
  6. Write 4 characteristics of the Paleolithic Period.
  7. When did the Neolithic begin?
  8. Write the 4 main characteristics of the Neolithic Period.
  9. When did the Metal Ages begin?
  10. Describe the characteristics of the Metal Ages
  11. When did the Ancient period begin?
  12.  Write down the 4 major civilizations that developed in the Ancient Period.
  13. Describe the characteristics of the Ancient Greece.
  14. Describe the characteristics of the Roman Empire.
  15. Why do we know that the Iberian Peninsula was inhabitated during the Paleolithic Period?
  16. What are the most important discoveries from the Paleolithic Period?
  17. Where are the most famous cave paintings in the world? Describe them.
  18. What is the most important clay pottery during the Metal Ages?
  19. What kinds of monuments were built during the Metal Ages?
  20. Who lived in the Peninsula in the early Ancient Period?
  21. Who established colonies along the eastern and southern coast of the Iberian Peninsula? Why?
  22. What was Hispania?
  23. What Roman monuments can we see nowadays in Spain?

Actividades del Hombre Prehistórico

 

Escena de las actividades tipo del Hombre del Paleolítico
 
Escena de las actividades tipo del Hombre del Neolítico
Escena de las actividades tipo del Hombre de la Edad de los Metales
 
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Línea del Tiempo de la Prehistoria

Línea del tiempo de la Prehistoria
 Línea del tiempo de la Prehistoria en España

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Evolución del Ser Humano

Desde el Australophitecus hasta el Homo Sapiens

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Periodización (división de la historia en distintos periodos)

Se conoce como periodización al campo de las ciencias sociales que trata de dividir la historia u otro campo del conocimiento (la ciencia, la literatura, el arte) en distintos períodos que posean unos rasgos comunes entre sí, lo suficientemente importantes como para hacerlos cualitativamente distintos a otros períodos.

  • En historia, la periodización más amplia da períodos denominados edades, mientras que los denominados época designan divisiones más breves o locales. En el campo de lahistoria natural o geología se utiliza la expresión eras (eras geológicas), aunque también se habla de era como período histórico en el campo de la cronología. Cada una de ellas da origen a distintos calendarios; término que se aplica también a periodos dominados por un personaje histórico, un hecho o un proceso que se considera fundamental. Época geológica es una subdivisión de la era geológica. La escala del tiempo geológico se divide en orden descendente de jerarquía de la siguiente manera: Eón, era, período, época y edad.

La periodización en la Historia

No hay un acuerdo universal sobre la periodización en Historia, aunque sí un consenso académico sobre los periodos de la Historia de la Civilización Occidental, basado en los términos acuñados por Cristóbal Celarius (Edades Antigua, Media y Moderna), que pone al mundo clásico y su renacimiento como los hechos determinantes para la división. 

En el siglo XVI los historiadores de la literatura y los filólogos, estudiando el latín señalaron tres fases en su gradual evolución: la "alta edad" o "superior" que llegaba hasta Constantino, etapa del latín clásico; la "edad media" de la lengua, que alcanzaba desde Constantino a Carlomagno (siglos IV al IX), y la "edad ínfima" iniciada en el 842 con el primer texto en romance, Los Juramentos de Estrasburgo, Por eso precisamente Ch. D. Du Cange tituló su famoso diccionario Glossarium ad scriptores mediae et infimae latinitatis (París, 1678). La primera ocasión en que se designa el término "Edad media" con sentido histórico parece haber sido en 1639, por el liejense Rasuin en su Laodium. La expresión pasaría desde ese mismo siglo XVII a designar el período de transición entre la antigüedad clásica y el renacer de su cultura experimentada en la Edad Nueva que habita tomado cuerpo a lo largo del siglo XV. Y, en consecuencia, su uso tendía a menospreciar los valores de dicha edad intermedia como un puente o una noche de “mil años”. Los pedagogos fueron los responsables de que este nuevo concepto de la Edad Media adquiriera carta de naturaleza en los manuales o síntesis de historia. Un profesor de fines del siglo XVII, Cristóbal Séller (1634-1707) o Celarius –como gustaba llamarse latinizando su nombre a la manera humanista- introdujo la modalidad en uno de los manuales escolares de Historia Antigua editado en 1685, y la claridad que implicaba para la explicación histórica le indujo a repetirla en otro, titulado Historia Medii Aevi a temporibus Constanini Magni ad Constaninopolim a Turcis captam deducta (Jena, 1688). Otro profesor, Loescher, la repitió en un manual alemán: Geschicchte der Mittleren Zeiten (1725), y no tardó en generalizarse el nuevo concepto, porque resultaba cómoda esa división de la Historia.

Manuel Riu (1978)

 

PREHISTORIA

¿QUÉ ES LA HISTORIA?

   La historia es la ciencia que tiene como objeto de estudio el pasado de la humanidad.
   Esta sencilla definición se puede ampliar mucho más, pues los historiadores no sólo tratan de investigar los hechos de la humanidad sino también las causas que llevaron a ellos y las consecuencias que éstos han tenido en los hechos futuros.

   Para comprender los hechos históricos es necesario conocer los antecedentes que llevaron a ellos, por ello, el estudio de la Historia debe comenzar desde el primer momento en que aparecen seres humanos sobre la Tierra.

   La Historia de la humanidad se divide en dos periodos: la Prehistoria y la Historia.

   La Prehistoria, que abarca varios millones de años, es el periodo comprendido entre la aparición de los hombres y la invención de la escritura. Este periodo es conocido por la interpretación de los restos (utensilios, construcciones, pinturas rupestres, etc) dejados por nuestros antepasados. 

   La Historia es el periodo comprendido entre la aparición de la escritura, hace aproximadamente 5000 años, y la actualidad. El llamado periodo histórico se conoce, además de por los restos que se conservan, por los textos escritos donde se narran las formas de vida de las civilizaciones que nos han precedido y los principales sucesos que en ellas se dieron.
   
Observa la siguiente línea del tiempo:
(Debes entender que la Preshistoria abarca un periodo de tiempo "infinatamente" mayor que la Historia. La Prehistoria abarca varios millones de años y la Historia sólo los últimos 5.000 años. Para que lo entiendas mejor, si la línea del tiempo tuviera un kilómetro de longitud, la Prehistoria abarcaría toda la línea, excepto unos pocos centímetros, que corresponderían al periodo Histórico).

LA PREHISTORIA

   La Prehistoria se divide en varias etapas:

EL PALEOLÍTICO
  • Parece ser que los primeros seres humanos que habitaron la Península Ibérica llegaron, procedentes de África, hace aproximadamente 1 millón de años.
  • Viven al aire libre en cuevas, o en sencillas cabañas construidas con ramas y pieles animales.
  • Se alimentan de lo que encuentran en la naturaleza: recolectan frutos silvestres y raíces, pescan peces y moluscos, cazan ciervos, bisontes, mamuts, ...
  • Visten con pieles de animales que cazan. Conocen el fuego y lo utilizan para calentarse, defenderse de los animales y cocinar alimentos.
  • Viven en pequeños grupos, tribus, formados por varias familias.
  • Fabrican herramientas con piedras y huesos: agujas, arpones para pescar, hachas, cuchillos, puntas de flecha, etc.
  • Aparecen los primeros artistas. Pintan animales y escenas de caza en paredes y techos de las cuevas, obteniendo las pinturas de minerales que machacaban y mezclaban con grasa de animales. También hacen pequeñas esculturas, que representan mujeres embarazadas, llamadas venus.
Esquema del paleolítico:
EL NEOLÍTICO

   Neolítico significa "nueva edad de la piedra", aunque según la mayoría de los historiadores se debería llamar edad de la piedra pulimentada.

   El Neolítico comienza hace aproximadamente  10.000 años, aunque no se desarrolla simultáneamente en todos los sitios. En Europa, podemos decir, como afirma el libro de texto, que comienza hace aproximadamente unos 7.000 años.

    El comienzo del Neolítico lo marcan dos hechos muy importantes: el descubrimiento de la agricultura y la ganadería.

   Los hombres aprenden a cultivar semillas; primero trigo y arroz, luego otras plantas.

Agricultura en el Neolítico

   Por otro lado, aprenden a domesticar animales, cabras, ovejas, bueyes, que guardan en cercados.

Ganadería en el Neolítico

   Estos dos hechos importantísmos permiten al hombre del Neolítico cambiar su forma de vida. Ya no es necesario que se desplace de un lugar a otro en busca de comida y se hace sedentario, es decir, se asienta en un lugar donde construyen poblados cada vez mayores.

Poblado Neolítico

   Las aldeas y poblados del Neolítico se sitúan cerca de los ríos, para poder disponer de agua cerca, y se rodean con vallas y cercas de troncos o empalizada, que servía para defenderla.

   En esta época, los hombres empiezan a especializarse en algunas tareas, así unos eran agricultores, otros cazadores y otros artesanos.


Cerámica del Neolítico

  En el Neolítico se construyeron herramientas de piedra tales como azadas, hoces, molinos de mano para moler los granos, etc. Estas herramientas se hacían de piedra pulimentada, más resistente que la piedra golpeada del Paleolítico.


   En esta época se produjeron dos inventos importantes:

  • Los tejidos, fabricados con lana de animales en telares muy sencillos.
  • La cerámica, con barro modelado con las manos y cocido al fuego en una hoguera. Se fabricaban vasijas, platos, cuencos, etc, para guardar el grano y para cocinar, comer y beber en ellos. 
   Las pinturas del Neolítico representaban escenas de caza, de recolecciones y de grupos bailando.

   Las figuras son muy esquemáticas y de un solo color (monocromas).

LA EDAD DE LOS METALES

   En la última etapa de la Prehistoria, hace aproximadamente, 6.000 años, los hombres aprendieron a fabricar objetos de metal.

   Primero emplearon el cobre, más tarde el bronce y, posteriormente, el hierro.
 
    Con estos metales hacían armas, como espadas, hachas, lanzas; adornos, como collares y broches; y herramientas como azadas y hoces.

   Estas armas y herramientas, fabricadas con metal, eran más fuertes y resistentes que las fabricadas con piedra.

LAS CIUDADES

   En las zonas donde se encontraban estos metales se desarrollaron pequeñas ciudades, rodeadas de murallas de piedra para defenderlas.

   Comienzan a organizarse socialmente, en torno a un jefe y aparecen nuevos oficios: guerreros para defender la ciudad, comerciantes que compraban y vendían metales, tejidos, cerámica, etc.

INVENTOS DE LA EDAD DE LOS METALES

    En la Edad de los Metales se produjeron tres grandes inventos: la rueda, la vela y el arado.

   La rueda permitió trasladar mercancías más pesadas en carros.

El arado, arrastrado por animales, permitía labrar cultivos cada vez más extensos.
   La vela, lo que hizo posible construir barcos más grandes que podían transportar a más personas y más mercancías.

LOS MONUMENTOS MEGALÍTICOS
 
   Las personas que vivieron en esta época construyeron monumentos con grandes piedras llamadas megalitos.

   Hay diferentes clases de monumentos megalíticos, que puedes ver si pinchas en el siguiente enlace:


   También puedes ver estos vídeos, sobre la Edad de los Metales y sobre los monumentos megalíticos.

 

FORCES and MACHINES - Questions and Answers

1. What is a force?

A force is any pull or push that can put an object into motion, stop an object or change the way that it moves. A force can also deform or break an object.

2. What are the main types of forces?  Give examples.

The main types of forces are contact forces and non-contact forces.

Contact forces act on objects by making physical contact, for example, a tennis player shots the ball with his tennis racket.

Non-contact forces act on objects without making physical contact, for example, a magnet attracting iron from a distance.

3. What type of force is magnetism?

The force of magnetism is a non-contact force.

4. What is the force of gravity? What does it depend on?

The force of gravity is a non-contact force that depends on an object’s mass and its distance from the Earth.

5. How do mass and distance affect the force of gravity?

Gravity is stronger on objects that have got more mass and on objects that are near the Earth.

6. Why do astronauts float in space?

Astronauts float on space because gravity is weaker on objects that are far from the Earth.

7. What is a machine?

A machine is a tool that multiplies force to make work faster and easier.

8. What is a simple machine?

A simple machine is a machine that usually has got one or two parts.

9. What is a complex machine?

Complex machines are combinations of two or more simple machines. They have got many parts.

10. In what everyday machines can we find gears?

We can find gears in clocks, bicycles and door handles.

11. What are the main types of simple machines?    

The main types of simple machines are: the wheel, the pulley, the ramp, the lever and the screw.

12. How can we use a pulley?

We use pulleys to lift loads. When we pull down on one end of the rope the other end pulls up the load. We use the same amount of force, but the pulley makes the work more comfortable.

13. How can we use a ramp?

We use a ramp to go up and down. We can also use a ramp to move heavy loads more easily.

14. How can we use a lever?

We use levers to move and lift objects more easily.

15. How do we call the fixed point of a lever?

We call it fulcrum.

16. Let’s see how much you know about your bicycle: What is the part that connects the crank to the back wheel? What do you use to change the direction of the front wheel? What is the special wheel with metal gears? What does a cable to control the brake pull?

The part that connects the crank to the back wheel is the chain.

The part that we use to change the direction of the front wheel is the handlebar.

The special wheel with metal gears is the crank.

The cable to control the brake pulls the brake lever.

17. What is technology? What does it include?

Technology is the art of applying scientific knowledge to solve practical problems. It includes designing and building the necessary equipment.

18. What is the most important invention in the history of transport?

The most important invention in the history of transport is the wheel.

19. What type of engine have most aeroplanes got today?

Most aeroplanes use the jet turbine.

20. What did the steam engine give us?

The steam machine gave us a new way to power machines and vehicles.

06/06/2014 13:08 miprimerzarzablog #. SOCIAL AND NATURAL SCIENCE No hay comentarios. Comentar.

FORCES and MACHINES - Questions

  1. What is a force?
  2. What are the main types of forces?  Give examples.
  3. What type of force is magnetism?
  4. What is the force of gravity? What does it depend on?
  5. How do mass and distance affect the force of gravity?
  6. Why do astronauts float in space?
  7. What is a machine?
  8. What is a simple machine?
  9. What is a complex machine?
  10. In what everyday machines can we find gears?
  11. What are the main types of simple machines?    
  12. How can we use a pulley?
  13. How can we use a ramp?
  14. How can we use a lever?
  15. How do we call the fixed point of a lever?
  16. Let’s see how much you know about your bicycle: What is the part that connects the crank to the back wheel? What do you use to change the direction of the front wheel? What is the special wheel with metal gears? What does a cable to control the brake pull?
  17. What is technology? What does it include?
  18. What is the most important invention in the history of transport?
  19. What type of engine have most aeroplanes got today?
  20. What did the steam engine give us?

SIMPLE MACHINES GAME

Fancy playing a game on SIMPLE MACHINES while learning a bit more about them?

Click on the picture to start.

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Force and Motion Facts

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Motion makes the world go 'round. Motion is important to our lives and impacts so many things that we do. Motion is the changing of position or location. But motion requires a force to cause that change. 

Force is just a fancy word for pushing or pulling. If I push on something or pull on it, then I am applying a force to it. Force makes things move or, more accurately, makes things change their motion. Two natural forces that we have experienced are the force of gravity and magnetic forces.

Carry on learning about force and motion by clicking here....

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Experiment

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By placing an egg in a bowl containing vinegar, we can observe changes in its physical properties. Through this home experiment we'll try to explain in more detail each of the physical changes (color, smell, texture, etc.), as well as possible changes in chemical structure (decomposition).

Click here to learn about the experiment...

 

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MATTER CHANGES - Questions

  1. What is matter?

  2. What does the state of matter depend on?

  3. What is the difference between physical changes and chemical changes of matter?

  4. How do we call the physical changes that matter undergoes when it changes from one physical state to another because of a change of temperature? Draw the diagram.

  5. What is a pure substance? What is a mixture? What is a solution?

  6. What is the difference between a homogeneous mixture and a heterogeneous mixture? Give examples.

  7. What is oxidation? And combustion?

  8. What techniques would you use to separate a mixture of oil and water, a mixture of sand and water, a mixture of salt and water, and to separate a mixture of iron and sand?

  9. It’s very cold and you are talking outside. Why does white vapour come out of your mouth? Is this a chemical change or physical change?

  10. Lets see what you know about water: Is it a pure substance or a mixture? Is it a simple substance or a compound? Why? What is its boiling point?

     

Physical and Chemical Properties of Matter

Each phase of matter has its own chemical and physical properties.

Phases of Matter

The phases of matter are:

  • Solid – which has a definite shape and volume
  • Liquid – which has a definite volume, but can change shape
  • Gas - the shape and volume of a gas can change

Phase Changes of Matter

There are several ways in which phases of matter can change from one to another:

  • Melting - melting occurs when a substance changes from a solid to a liquid
  • Boiling - boiling is when a substance changes from a liquid to a gas
  • Condensing - condensation is when a gas changes to a liquid
  • Freezing - freezing is when a liquid changes to a solid

Classes of Changes in Matter

The changes that take place in substances may be categorized in two classes:

  • Physical Change – a new substance is not produced and just the physical properties are changed. For example - phase changes, or crushing a can
  • Chemical Change – a new substance is produced with different chemical properties. For example: burning, rusting, and photosynthesis.

Solutions

Sometimes, when two or more substances are combined it results in a solution. Making a solution can produce either a physical or chemical change. When there’s a physical change in a solution, the original substances can be separated from one another. If a chemical change takes place while creating a solution, the original substances cannot be separated from one another.

12/05/2014 14:23 miprimerzarzablog #. SOCIAL AND NATURAL SCIENCE No hay comentarios. Comentar.

Atrévete con Europa...

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Si ya dominas la geografía española, atrévete con el mapa de Europa.

Pincha en el enlace para descubrir más juegos interactivos y aprender sobre Europa en su gran día.


Matter Matters!!

Matter matters!!

Learn more about Matter in these Super Science Sites!!

             

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MATTER - Questions and Answers

 1. What is matter?

Everything around you is matter; matter is the stuff around you.

 2. What are the general properties of matter? Define them.

The general properties of matter as mass and volume.

Mass is the amount of matter in a physical body.

Volume is the amount of space that a body occupies.

 3. What tools do we use to measure the general properties of matter?

We can measure the mass of a body with scales and weighing machines.

To measure the volume of a solid body we can put it into a beaker of water.

 4. Can two objects weigh the same but have a different form and volume? Explain it.

Yes, two objects that have a different form and volume can weigh the same if they have got the same mass.

 5. Why does a wet T-shirt weigh more than a dry one?

Because the mass of the T-shirt has water added to it.

 6. Why does a balloon deflate if you don’t tie a knot?

Because air tends to occupy the maximum space possible.

 7. Why does a silver ring sink in water?

Because the density of silver is greater that the density of water.

 8. What are other specific properties of matter? Define them and give examples.

Different types of matter have got specific properties that make them unique. These specific properties of matter are hardness and toughness, plasticity, ductility and elasticity, and conductivity.

Hardness is the ability to resist scratches and cuts. Diamond is a hard material and chalk is a soft one.

Toughness is the ability to resist breaking. Steel and granite are tough materials and glass and porcelain are fragile ones.

Plasticity is the ability to change shape without breaking. Plastic materials can we bend and fold easily.

Ductility is the ability to be stretched to make thin wires. Gold and silver are very ductile materials.

Elasticity is the ability to return to their original shape after we bend or stretch them. Rubber is a very elastic material.

Conductivity is the ability to conduct heat or electricity. Thermal conductors conduct heat easily, as many metals. Electrical conductors conduct electricity very easily, as cooper and gold. Thermal insulators are materials that don’t conduct heat very well, as wood. Electrical insulators are materials that don’t conduct electricity very well, as plastic and rubber.

 9. How do we call materials that break easily?

We call them fragile materials.

 10. Is gold an elastic material? Why?

No, it isn’t. Gold can not be bent or stretched and return to its original shape.

 11. Give examples of two good thermal conductors and two good electrical conductors?

Iron and aluminium are good thermal conductors. Steel and cooper are good electrical conductors.

 12. How do we call materials that are not good conductors?

We call them insulators.

 13. Write two examples for each of the following definitions:

  • A hard, tough material: diamond

  • A soft, elastic material: sponge

  • A hard, fragile material: porcelain

  • A plastic, insulating material: rubber

 14. What are the three states of matter? And their properties?

The three states of matter are solid, liquid and gas.

Solids have a constant mass, a constant volume and a stable shape.

Liquids have a constant mass, a constant volume and a variable shape.

Gases have a constant mass, a variable volume and a variable shape.

 15. Which properties of solids are constant?

Mass, volume and shape are constant in solids.

 16. What are the three examples of water in a solid form?

Ice, snow and hail are three examples of water in a solid form.

 17. What does the state of water depend on?

The state of water depends on its temperature.

 18. How can we cause a change of state in water?

We can cause a change of state in water by adding heat.

 19. At what temperatures does water freezes and boils?

Water freezes at 0ºC and it boils at 100ºC.

 20. Look at the drawing on page 125 of your textbook and explain what happens:

There is ice in a glass beaker which is being heated. The ice melts because of the heat and changes to liquid water. As we continue heating the beaker, the water boils and changes to water vapour.

MATTER - Questions

  1. What is matter?
  2. What are the general properties of matter? Define them.
  3. What tools do we use to measure the general properties of matter?
  4. Can two objects weigh the same but have a different form and volume? Explain it.
  5. Why does a wet T-shirt weigh more than a dry one?
  6. Why does a balloon deflate if you don’t tie a knot?
  7. Why does a silver ring sink in water?
  8. What are other specific properties of matter? Define them and give examples.
  9. How do we call materials that break easily?
  10. Is gold an elastic material? Why?
  11. Give examples of two good thermal conductors and two good electrical conductors.
  12. How do we call materials that are not good conductors?
  13. Write two examples for each of the following definitions: a hard, tough material; a soft, elastic material; a hard fragile material; a plastic, insulating material.
  14. What are the three states of matter? And their properties?
  15. Which properties of solids are constant?
  16. What are the three examples of water in a solid form?
  17. What does the state of water depend on?
  18. How can we cause a change of state in water?
  19. At what temperatures does water freezes and boils?
  20. Look at the drawing on page 125 of your text book and explain what happens.

Más mapas interactivos

Vuestra compañera Lara (5ºA) nos recomienda otra página web con juegos para prácticar la geografía de España.

¡¡Gracias Lara!!

Mapas Interactivos

Pincha en el mapa para acceder a los mapas interactivos.

Matter is the Stuff Around You

Matter is everything around you. Matter is anything made of atoms and molecules. Matter is anything that has amass. Matter is also related to light and electromagnetic radiation. Even though matter can be found all over the universe, you usually find it in just a few forms. As of 1995, scientists have identified fivestates of matter. They may discover one more by the time you get old. 

You should know about solids, liquids, gases, plasmas, and a new one called Bose-Einstein condensates. The first four have been around a long time. The scientists who worked with the Bose-Einstein condensate received a Nobel Prize for their work in 1995. But what makes a state of matter? It’s about the physical state of molecules and atoms.

Do you want to know more about matter? Click here.

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BrainPOP Jr. GAMES

Do you want to learn and play while reviewing science?

I’m sure you do.

Visit this website to have fun learning: Brain POP Jr GAMES

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VERTEBRATES - Questions

  1. What are the main characteristics of vertebrates?
  2. How do some vertebrates take oxygen from water?
  3. How do viviparous animals reproduce?
  4. How many groups of vertebrates are there?
  5. What covers the body of an amphibian?
  6. How do most fish reproduce?
  7. What is a shark’s skeleton made of?
  8. What are two names for amphibian young?
  9. Why haven’t adult frogs got tails?
  10. How do snakes move around?
  11. Are lizards viviparous animals?
  12. Which reptile has got a hard shell?
  13. What have birds and turtles got instead of teeth?
  14. How can we classify mammals according to the way they reproduce? Give examples of mammals belonging to each group.
  15. What do mammary glands do?
  16. Which mammals reproduce by laying eggs?
  17. Which group of mammals is the most numerous?
  18. Where do female marsupials carry their young?
  19. According to what they eat, animals can be carnivores, herbivores and omnivores. Give an example of each group.
  20. Can you name any fishing carnivore? And what about a hunting carnivore?
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Animal Groups

Almost all animals fall into one of two groups. Adultvertebrates have a spinal column, or backbone, running the length of the body; invertebrates do not. Vertebrates are often larger and have more complex bodies than invertebrates. However, there are many more invertebrates than vertebrates.

Vertebrates

  • Fish breathe through gills, and live in water; most are cold-blooded and lay eggs (although sharks give birth to live young).
  • Amphibians are cold-blooded and live both on land (breathing with lungs) and in water (breathing through gills) at different times. Three types of amphibians are frogs and toads, salamanders, and caecilians. Caecilians are primitive amphibians that resemble earthworms. They are found in the tropics.
  • Reptiles are cold-blooded and breathe with lungs. They have scales, and most lay eggs. Reptiles include snakes, turtles and tortoises, crocodiles and alligators, and lizards. Dinosaurs were reptiles, although some scientists believe that some were warm blooded.
  • Birds are warm-blooded animals with feathers and wings. They lay eggs, and most can fly (although many, including penguins and ostriches, cannot).
  • Mammals are warm-blooded, and are nourished by their mothers’ milk; most are born live (however, the platypus lays eggs). Most mammals also have body hair.

Invertebrates

  • Sponges are the most primitive of animal groups. They live in water (usually saltwater), are sessile (do not move from place to place), and filter tiny organisms out of the water for food.
  • Coelenterates (jellyfish and polyps) are also very primitive. Their mouths, which take in food and get rid of waste, are surrounded by stinging tentacles. Some coelenterates are jellyfish, corals, and sea anemones.
  • Echinoderms include starfish, sea urchins, and sea cucumbers. They live in seawater and have external skeletons.
  • Annelids or worms come in many varieties and live in all sorts of habitats — from the bottom of the ocean to the inside of other animals. They include flatworms (flukes), roundworms (hookworms), segmented worms (earthworms), and rotifers (philodina).
  • Mollusks are soft-bodied animals, which often live in hard shells. They include snails, slugs, octopus, squid, mussels, oysters, clams, scallops, chitons, and cuttlefish. Mollusks are the second-largest group of invertebrates, with 50,000 living species.
  • Arthropods are the largest and most diverse of all animal groups. They have segmented bodies supported by a hard external skeleton (or exoskeleton). Arthropods include insects, arachnids (spiders and their relatives), centipedes, millipedes, and crustaceans like crabs, lobsters, and shrimp.

... Learn more about vertebrates and invertebrates in BIOLOGY 4 KIDS.

 

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INVERTEBRATES - Questions

  1. What are the main characteristics of invertebrates?
  2. What percentage of the world’s animals are vertebrates?
  3. What is the most numerous group of animals on our planet?
  4. What main groups of invertebrates are there?
  5. What kind of protection have ants and beetles got?
  6. What has an echinoderm got on its body?
  7. Which invertebrate has got a soft body with many segments?
  8. What main groups of arthropods are there?
  9. How many legs have the different groups of arthropods got?
  10. Which type of arthropod can have wings?
  11. What type of mollusk has got long arms?
  12. What is the shape of a snail’s shell?
  13. How do bivalve mollusks get nutrients?
  14. Are jellyfish filter feeders?
  15. How do polyps anchor themselves to the ocean floor?
  16. How many arms has a starfish normally got?
  17. What group of invertebrates do earthworms belong to?
  18. How do sponges feed?
  19. Why has a sea urchin got spikes on its body?
  20. Give examples of some arthropods that are useful for us and some that cause problems.

Research Project on Arthropods

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1.- How do we get honey from bees? Explain the process from beehive to table. Why is honey so good for us? What other products do we get from beehives?


2.- Which arthropods are edible? Which ones are eaten in Spain? Which ones are eaten in other countries? Look for recipes that have mollusks as the main ingredient.


3.- What is malaria? How is it transmitted? In what countries is malaria a severe problem? How many people are infected every year? Look for possible measures for prevention and cure.


4.- What are locusts? What type of animal are they? In which countries is there a danger of locusts destroying farmer’s crops? How fast can a swarm of locusts eat their way through a field of crops? What can be done to prevent this from happening?


12/03/2014 11:18 miprimerzarzablog #. SOCIAL AND NATURAL SCIENCE No hay comentarios. Comentar.

ARTHROPODS

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The Largest Animal Group

Arthropods are animals with segmented bodies and six or more jointed legs. They are the largest animal group on Earth. In fact, more than three out of four of all animals are arthropods. They are found everywhere – on land, in trees, in freshwater and saltwater, and even underground. Arthropods are generally small. Most are less than 1 cm long. Some arthropods, however, are quite large. The giant king crab, for example, measures over 3.2 m from the tip of one outstretched leg to another. Some of the most familiar arthropods are butterflies, beetles, flies, ants, bees, spiders, scorpions, shrimp, and crabs.

Arthropods are found in every environment including the ocean. Crustaceans, like this crab, are aquatic arthropods.

Six Legs, Eight Legs, Ten Legs, or More!

There are many strange and beautiful arthropods. Most belong to one of three major groups: insects, crustaceans, or arachnids.

Insects are the only arthropods capable of powered flight. Some dragonflies can fly at speeds over 64 kph!

Insects have six legs. They are the only arthropods capable of powered flight. Dragonflies are the most spectacular. Some can fly at speeds over 64 kph! Every year, scientists discover and describe thousands of new arthropod species. Most are new insects.

Spiders, like this tarantula, are arachnids. Arachnids make up the second-largest group of arthropods.

Arachnids have eight legs. Spiders are, perhaps, the best-known arachnid. Most arachnids live on land, although a few live in freshwater. Scorpions, mites, and ticks are also arachnids.

This spiny lobster is a crustacean. Most crustaceans live in the ocean or in freshwater.

Crustaceans have ten or more legs. Most are aquatic, which means they live in water. Most aquatic crustaceans – crabs, lobsters, and shrimp – live in the sea. A few crustaceans live in freshwater streams and lakes. Some, like woodlice, live on land. Both the largest and smallest arthropods in the world are crustaceans.

Arthropods Make Good Eating

Arthropods are an important part of many different food chains. Krill, shrimp, and copepods are just some of the arthropods that many animals rely on for food.

Arthropods are critical to the food chain. They are the major source of food for most other animals and even a few plants. Birds, reptiles, fish, and other arthropods eat them. Even people eat arthropods. In the oceans, arthropods such as krill, copepods, and other crustaceans form the foundation of the food chain on which most fish and sea mammals survive. Even the largest animal in the world, the blue whale (which weighs 108 metric tons), feeds on plankton. Plankton is a floating soup of marine arthropods, plants, and other tiny animals.If you’ve eaten shrimp, crab, or lobster, then you’ve made a meal of an arthropod.

Arthropod Anatomy

All arthropods have jointed legs and a head and segmented body parts called the thorax and abdomen. An arthropod’s body is covered by a shell or a hard outer skin called anexoskeleton. It is made of a material called chitin. The exoskeleton has a special top layer, the cuticle, which is thick and tough. In crustaceans, the exoskeleton is sometimes called the carapace and hides the segmented body parts.

Arthropods are a very diverse group, but they share some basic characteristics. Click below to discover their similar features.

It’s an Arthropod’s Life

Because there are so many different types of arthropods, there are also many different ways in which they develop and grow. Most begin as eggs, hatch into larvae, and then metamorphose into adults.

Outgrowing Their Skins

Having a hard exoskeleton provides good protection. But it can be a disadvantage when an arthropod is growing. Arthropods must shed their exoskeleton and grow a new, larger one. As an arthropod grows, its exoskeleton splits along the back of the thorax. The arthropod can then crawl out of its old exoskeleton. It can take several minutes or up to a few hours for the new exoskeleton to harden. During this time, the arthropod is without its “armor” and can be attacked very easily.

Many arthropods sting or bite when defending themselves. Some have powerful venom that they use to stun or kill their prey. Some of these arthropods are poisonous to people as well as animals.

Making Major Changes

Arachnids – spiders, scorpions, and ticks – hatch from eggs and look like small versions of their adult parents. But many arthropods change dramatically between the time they hatch and the time they reach adulthood. For example, flightless caterpillars (the larval stage of moths and butterflies) turn into winged adults. Ladybugs look like miniature dragons until they metamorphose. Strange little creatures called zoea look like they have come from outer space. They swim about the ocean before settling to the bottom and becoming crabs.

Arthropods and People

Many people do not understand the vital role arthropods play in keeping the world alive and healthy. Life on Earth would end very quickly without arthropods. Arthropods are great recyclers and decomposers and they are a super food source. They also help pollinate the plants that provide food and keep the air and water clean.

Arthropods to Avoid

Arthropods such as flies, lice, fleas, ticks, and mosquitoes can make your life uncomfortable if they bite you. Some insects, arachnids, and millipedes produce poisons that can make people sick or even kill them. Arthropods are also indirectly responsible for many people dying. Certain kinds of mosquitoes are very dangerous. They may carry diseases like malaria and dengue fever. Malaria passed on to people by mosquitoes kills over 1 million people each year- that’s more than any other disease.

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INVERTEBRATES - Characteristics and Main Groups

Click here you see the outline of the characteristics and main groups of invertebrates.


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PLANTS - Questions

                   
  1. Plants share certain characteristics. Which are them?
  2. How can we classify plants according to how they reproduce?
  3. What is another name for gymnosperms? And for angiosperms?
  4. What are the non-seed plants? How do they reproduce?
  5. Where do a fern’s spores capsules grow?
  6. What part of a moss anchors it to the ground?
  7. Name and explain the three ways plants interact with their environment.
  8. What are the three basic parts of plants?
  9. What are the functions of roots? Are all roots equal?
  10. What is the main function of the stem?
  11. We can divide plants into two groups according to their stems, which are them?
  12. What do we call the parts of a compound leaf?
  13. How do plants perform the nutrition process? Explain it.
  14. What plant process occurs at night? Explain it.
  15. What parts of a flower form the calyx?
  16. How many parts has the pistil got?
  17. What is the male reproductive organ of the flower?
  18. What is cross-pollination?
  19. How does fertilization occur?
  20. When does germination take place?
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Parts of plants

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Click here to see the chart of the parts of plants.


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Characteristics of Plants

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Do you want to check the chart we’ve copied in class?

Click here to see it.

 

LIVING THINGS - Questions

             
  1. What is the biosphere?
  2. What are the three basic life processes?
  3. Do all living things reproduce in the same way?
  4. How do people interact with their environment?
  5. What basic life process are we performing when we breathe?
  6. Are cells living things? How do we know?
  7. Have animal cells got a cell wall?
  8. According to the number of cells, what type of organisms exist?
  9. What type of organisms are bacteria?
  10. What are the main parts of the cell?
  11. What does a cell’s nucleus do?
  12. How many levels of life organization have we studied? Name them in order.
  13. What do we call similar tissues that work together to perform a function?
  14. In how many groups can we classify living things?
  15. What kingdom has only got unicellular organisms?
  16. Where do protozoans usually live?
  17. How are plants and algae alike?
  18. Which kingdom is mainly formed by decomposers?
  19. What are the names of some members of the Fungus Kingdom?

CLASSIFICATION OF LIVING THINGS

THE FIVE KINGDOMS

MORENAN KINGDOM:

Characteristics: All living things in this kingdom are unicellular organisms.

Examples: Bacteria which can be found almost everywhere (water, soil, food, air,..)

PROTIST KINGDOM:

Characteristics: The living things in this kingdom can be unicellular or multicellular.

Examples: Unicellular organisms -> Protozoans: most of them are acquatic.

                Multicellular organisms -> Algae: make their own food and use the energy from the sun to perform photosynthesis.

FUNGUS KINGDOM:

Characteristics: The members of this kingdom can be unicellular or multicellular. Most of them take nutrients from the remains of plants and animals. They are decomposers.

Examples: Unicellular organisms -> Yeast.

                Multicellular organisms -> Mushrooms.

PLANT KINGDOM:

Characteristics: All plants are multicellular organisms. They make their own food and use the energy from the sun to perform photosynthesis. They don’t move.

Examples: oak tree, apple tree, pine,…

ANIMAL KINGDOM:

Characteristics: All animals are multicellular organisms. They are the most numerous group of living things. They can’t make their own food but they eat plants and other animals. Almost all animals can move around.

Examples: dolphin, spider, ladybird, eagle,…

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LEVELS OF LIFE ORGANIZATION

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Click on the link to see the hierarchy of life organization, from cells to biosphere.

CELLS

Cells are the Starting Point

Structure of generic animal cellAll living organisms on Earth are divided in pieces called cells. There are smaller pieces to cells that include proteins and organelles. There are also larger pieces called tissuesand systems. Cells are small compartments that hold all of the biological equipment necessary to keep an organism alive and successful on Earth. 

A main purpose of a cell is to organize. Cells hold a variety of pieces and each cell has a different set of functions. It is easier for an organism to grow and survive when cells are present. If you were only made of one cell, you would only be able to grow to a certain size. You don’t find single cells that are as large as a cow. Also, if you were only one cell you couldn’t have anervous system, no muscles for movement, and using the internet would be out of the question. The trillions of cells in your body make your life possible. 

One Name, Many Types


Animal and plant cells

There are many types of cells. In biology class, you will usually work with plant-like cells and animal-like cells. We say animal-like because an animal type of cell could be anything from a tinymicroorganism to a nerve cell in your brain. Plant cells are easier to identify because they have a protective structure called a cell wall made of cellulose. Plants have the wall; animals do not. Plants also have organelles like the chloroplast (the things that make them green) or large water-filled vacuoles. 

Different types of animal cells

We said that there are many types of cells. Cells are unique to each type of organism. Humans may have hundreds of types of cells. Some cells are used to carry oxygen (O2) through the blood (red blood cells) and others might be specific to the heart. If you look at very simple organisms, you will discover cells that have no defined nucleus (prokaryotes) and other cells that have hundreds of nuclei (multinucleated). The thing they all have in common is that they are compartments surrounded by some type of membrane.


CELL NUCLEUS - Commanding the Cell

The cell nucleus acts like the brain of the cell. It helps control eating, movement, and reproduction. If it happens in a cell, chances are the nucleus knows about it. The nucleus is not always in the center of the cell. It will be a big dark spot somewhere in the middle of all of the cytoplasm (cytosol). You probably won’t find it near the edge of a cell because that might be a dangerous place for the nucleus to be. If you don’t remember, the cytoplasm is the fluid that fills cells. 

 


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ECOSYSTEMS - Questions


  1. What are the elements of an ecosystem?

  2. What things form part of the biotope?

  3. What things form part of the biocoenosis?

  4. What is the difference between a population and a community?

  5. Explain the difference between intraspecific and interspecific relationships. Give examples.

  6. Which are the trophic levels in a trophic relationship?

  7. What organisms are producers?

  8. What type of organisms feed on secondary consumers?

  9. What do decomposers do in an ecosystem?

  10. What is the difference between a food chain and a food web?

  11. What type of ecosystem is a garden in the city?

  12. What is water salinity?

  13. What are the most important environmental factors in terrestrial ecosystems?

  14. What are the six main types of terrestrial ecosystems.

  15. Where are the largest wetlands in Europe?

  16. Where does pollution come from?

  17. What can happen when plant species disappear?

  18. After a fire, what can happen to the soil in the forest?

  19. Human disrespect for nature can cause ecological problems. Which are the most serious ones?

  20. Define sustainable development and name some of the changes we can make.

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ECOSYSTEMS - Elements & Types

Didn’t you have time to finish copying the charts in class???

Click HERE to copy or print them.


What is an Ecosystem?

An ecosystem includes all of the living things (plants, animals and organisms) in a given area, interacting with each other, and also with their non-living environments (weather, earth, sun, soil, climate, atmosphere). 
meaning of ecosystems
In an ecosystem, each organism has its’ own niche, or role to play.

Consider a small puddle at the back of your home. In it, you may find all sorts of living things, from microorganisms, to insects and plants. These may depend on non-living things like water, sunlight, turbulence in the puddle, temperature, atmospheric pressure and even nutrients in the water for life. ecosystem kids

This very complex, wonderful interaction of living things and their environment, has been the foundations of energy flow and recycle of carbon and nitrogen.

Anytime a ‘stranger’ (living thing(s) or external factor such as rise in temperature) is introduced to an ecosystem, it can be disastrous to that ecosystem. This is because the new organism (or factor) can distort the natural balance of the interaction and potentially harm or destroy the ecosystem.
  
Usually, biotic members of an ecosystem, together with their abiotics factors depend on each other. This means the absence of one member, or one abiotic factor can affect all parties of the ecosystem. 

Unfortunately ecosystems have been disrupted, and even destroyed by natural disasters such as fires, floods, storms and volcanic eruptions. Human activities have also contributed to the disturbance of many ecosystems and biomes. 


More on ecosystem

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CHRISTMAS PROJECT - National Park

                                                                        

1. Choose a Nature Reserve or National Park in Spain.

2. Search for information about the park in reference books and/or the Internet.

3. Make a poster in a piece of cardboard with the information about the park including:

              - Name of the park. 

              - When it was named National Park or Nature Reserve.

              - Location.

              - Area.

              - Landscape.

              - Physical relief.

              - Bodies of water in the park or around it.

              - Vegetation.

              - Animal life.

              - Interesting facts.

4. Decorate the poster with pictures of the landscape, vegetation and animal life of the park.

5. Don’t forget to be clean and neat.

6. Be ready to present it to your classmates!!


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Landscapes in Spain - QUESTIONS

  1. Write down the names of the mountain ranges in the centre of the peninsula.
  2. Write down the names of the mountain ranges bordering the centre of the peninsula.
  3. Write down the names of the mountain ranges outside the centre of the peninsula.
  4. Which is the highest peak in Spain? Where is it located?
  5. Name the major rivers that flow into the Atlantic Ocean.
  6. Name the major rivers that flow into the Cantabrian Sea.
  7. Name the major rivers that flow into the Mediterranean Sea.
  8. Which two rivers have got extensive lowlands?
  9. What are the main characteristics of the rivers that flow into the Atlantic Ocean?
  10. Which rivers carry a constant volume of water? Explain why.
  11. Why do we need to create nature reserves?
  12. What is a humanized landscape? Is there another name for it?
  13. What types of plants can be found in the deciduous forest in Spain?
  14. Where do we typically find brown bears in Spain?
  15. What type of plants are heather and goose?
  16. In which type of landscape does the Iberian lynx live?
  17. What mammals can we see in Spain’s alpine landscapes?
  18. Why is there a variety of landscapes, vegetation and animal life in the Canary Islands?
  19. What is a plan of a place? What do we use it for?
  20. What is a map? What do we use it for?

Spain: Rivers and Types of Landscapes

Click here to see the table of the Rivers in Spain.

Click here to see the table of the types of Landscapes in Spain.

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GEOGRAFÍA

A través de estos mapas interactivos os ofrecemos una amplia gama de recursos educativos para poder conocer la geografía española a todos los niveles de una manera amena.

Pinchad en la imagen para acceder a los juegos.

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PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY OF SPAIN

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Click here to download more Maps of Spain.

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Weather and Climate - QUESTIONS

          
  1. Define weather and climate.
  2. What are the four main atmospheric conditions?
  3. What is temperature? Which tool do we use to measure it?
  4. What is precipitation? Which tool do we use to measure it?
  5. What is wind? Which tool do we use to measure it?
  6. What is atmospheric or air pressure? Which tool do we use to measure it?
  7. What are the factors that influence the climate?
  8. How much does the temperature change when you climb a mountain?
  9. Why are winters usually milder in coastal areas?
  10. Name the three general categories of climate in the Earth and their specific climates.
  11. Name the climate zones in Spain.
  12. Write down the main characteristics of the Continental Mediterranean climate in Spain.
  13. Write down the main characteristics of the Oceanic climate in Spain.
  14. Write down the main characteristics of the Mountain climate in Spain.
  15. Write down the main characteristics of the Subtropical climate in Spain.
  16. Write down the main characteristics of the Mediterranean climate in Spain.
  17. What is the main cause of climate change today? What are the main consequences?
  18. Which are the effects of extreme atmospheric conditions?
  19. What do we call a long period of time without any rain?
  20. What happens when carbon dioxide accumulates in the Earth’s atmosphere?

THE GREENHOUSE EFFECT

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A guided tour of the BIG QUESTIONS:

What is the greenhouse effect?

What does global climate change mean?


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SPAIN'S CLIMATE ZONES

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The image of Spain’s climate abroad has traditionally been one of blue skies and sun, while in reality it is as varied as the country’s geography. At least five different climate zones characterize the Spanish climate due to the Iberian Peninsula’s position between tropical (hot) and polar (cold) wind currents.

Click on this link to copy the table of Spain’s Climate Zones we’ve seen in class.

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THE EARTH'S CLIMATE ZONES

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Didn’t you have time to copy the Earth’s Climate Zones Chart?

Do you need to check it?

Click on this link then.

MAKE YOUR OWN WEATHER STATION

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Meteorologists study the weather by recording and analyzing data. You can become an amateur meteorologist by building your own weather station and keeping a record of your measurements.

 

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Planet Earth - QUESTIONS

                
  1. Name and define the three parts of the Earth.
  2. What do we call the gaseous layer that surrounds the Earth? Name its layers.
  3. Which layer of the atmosphere reflects radio waves?
  4. What is the ozone layer?
  5. Which are the layers of the geosphere? Which one is mostly made of iron?
  6. Where can we find water in a liquid state on the Earth
  7. What are the properties of minerals?
  8. How are metamorphic rocks formed?
  9. What does the process of erosion do to rocks?
  10. How do sedimentary rocks become metamorphic rocks?
  11. Classify the following rocks by their origin: conglomerate, basalt, slate, granite, carbon, sandstone.
  12. What do we call magma when it flows out of a volcano?
  13. What are the parts of a volcano?
  14. Why are areas and distances distorted on maps?
  15. What is another name for the Prime Meridian?
  16. Define latitude and longitude.
  17. What is the latitude of the equator?
  18. What are meridians? And parallels?
  19. Are meridians circular or semicircular?

THE ROCK CYCLE

The Rock Cycle is a group of changes. Igneous rock can change into sedimentary rock or into metamorphic rock. Sedimentary rock can change into metamorphic rock or into igneous rock. Metamorphic rock can change into igneous or sedimentary rock. 

Igneous rock forms when magma cools and makes crystals. Magma is a hot liquid made of melted minerals. The minerals can form crystals when they cool. Igneous rock can form underground, where the magma cools slowly. Or, igneous rock can form above ground, where the magma cools quickly.

Image displaying the Rock Cycle.  Please have someone assist you with this.

When it pours out on Earth’s surface, magma is called lava. Yes, the same liquid rock matter that you see coming out of volcanoes.

On Earth’s surface, wind and water can break rock into pieces. They can also carry rock pieces to another place. Usually, the rock pieces, called sediments, drop from the wind or water to make a layer. The layer can be buried under other layers of sediments. After a long time the sediments can be cemented together to make sedimentary rock. In this way, igneous rock can become sedimentary rock.

All rock can be heated. But where does the heat come from? Inside Earth there is heat from pressure (push your hands together very hard and feel the heat). There is heat from friction (rub your hands together and feel the heat). There is also heat from radioactive decay (the process that gives us nuclear power plants that make electricity).

So, what does the heat do to the rock? It bakes the rock.

Baked rock does not melt, but it does change. It forms crystals. If it has crystals already, it forms larger crystals. Because this rock changes, it is called metamorphic. Remember that a caterpillar changes to become a butterfly. That change is called metamorphosis. Metamorphosis can occur in rock when they are heated to 300 to 700 degrees Celsius.

When Earth’s tectonic plates move around, they produce heat. When they collide, they build mountains and metamorphose (met-ah-MORE-foes) the rock.

The rock cycle continues. Mountains made of metamorphic rocks can be broken up and washed away by streams. New sediments from these mountains can make new sedimentary rock.

The rock cycle never stops.


Layers of the Earth

Click on the image to follow the steps to make this model of the layers of the earth in plasticine.

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Unit 2 - PLANET EARTH

           

 In this unit we are going to learn the following contents:

  • Value of water for life and knowledge of its adequate and inadequate uses.
  • Parts of the Earth: atmosphere, geosphere and hydrosphere. Definitions.
  • Components and layers of the atmosphere.
  • Materials and layers of the geosphere. Properties of minerals. Types of rocks according to their origin.
  • Phenomena produced by the energy inside the Earth.
  • Minerals and their basic characteristics.
  • Identification and representation of the layers of the atmosphere and their characteristics (troposphere, stratosphere, ionosphere).
  • Identification and representation of the layers of the geosphere (crust, mantle and core).
  • Classification of different kinds of rocks according to their origin (volcanic, sedimentary, metamorphic).
  • Recognition and representation of a volcano and its basic parts.
  • Representation of the Earth in different forms.
  • Recognition of the basic imaginary lines of the Earth (Equator, meridians and parallels).
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THE EARTH IN THE UNIVERSE - Questions

               

  1. What is the universe? What does it include?
  2. What is a galaxy? What is the name of our galaxy?
  3. What are stars? What do they produce?
  4. How can we classify stars? According to this, which kind of star is the Sun?
  5. What is a large star called? And a small one?
  6. How long does the Sun take to revolve around our galaxy?
  7. Classify the planets in our solar system, from the closest to the farthest from the Sun.
  8. What is the difference between the inner planets and the outer planets?
  9. What are comets made of?
  10. What are natural satellites? What is the name of the one that revolves around our planet?
  11. How does the Earth move? Explain both movements.
  12. How long does the Earth take to complete one rotation?
  13. What is the direction of the Earth’s rotation?
  14. What happens every year on 21st June in the Northern Hemisphere?
  15. What does begin in the Southern Hemisphere when winter begins in the Northern one?
  16. How long is one lunar orbit?
  17. Why can we only see one side of the Moon?
  18. Name the lunar phases. Why do we see the full moon?
  19. What happens during a solar eclipse?
  20. What happens during a lunar eclipse?

 

 

10/10/2013 13:55 miprimerzarzablog #. SOCIAL AND NATURAL SCIENCE No hay comentarios. Comentar.

Earth, Sun and Moon Game

Learn about the Earth, Sun & Moon’s orbits as you experiment with different dates and times in this fun activity for kids.

Discover how long the Earth takes to orbit the Sun, how many hours it takes the Earth to spin around once on its own axis, how long the Moon takes to orbit the Earth, how it all relates to our calendar and other useful facts.

Watch how the Earth and Moon orbit the Sun, is it how you expected?

Find the answers to these questions and learn more about the size of the Earth, Sun & Moon, their shape and the speed they travel through space with this cool, interactive science game.

 

02/10/2013 10:30 miprimerzarzablog #. SOCIAL AND NATURAL SCIENCE No hay comentarios. Comentar.

THE SOLAR SYSTEM IN 3D

Interactive map where you can travel through our solar system.

                        

NASA FOR KIDS

Come see games, animations, projects, and amazing facts about Earth, space, and technology. 

                 

LUNAR CALENDAR 2013

Click on the image to get a Lunar calendar 2013 with the exact dates and times of the moon phases in 2013 year. 

                  

WHY PLUTO IS NOT CONSIDERED A PLANET ANYMORE?

PLUTÓN fue descubierto el 18 de febrero de 1930 por el astrónomo estadounidense Clyde William Tombaugh (1906-1997) desde el Observatorio Lowell en Flagstaff, Arizona, y considerado el noveno y más pequeño planeta del Sistema Solar por la Unión Astronómica Internacional y por la opinión pública desde entonces hasta 2006, aunque su pertenencia al grupo de planetas del Sistema Solar fue siempre objeto de controversia entre los astrónomos. Tras un intenso debate, la UAI decidió el 24 de agosto de 2006, por unanimidad, reclasificar Plutón como planeta enano,... pincha aquí para seguir leyendo.

     

SCIENCE KIDS

Enjoy fun science games while learning more about science and technology.

There’s a range of free online activities to try with something for everyone whether you’re interested in animals, plants, chemistry, biology, physics, space, magnets, electricity, forces, light, sounds, gases or other science related topics. 

Have fun learning online with these cool science games!

           

30/05/2013 19:19 miprimerzarzablog #. SOCIAL AND NATURAL SCIENCE No hay comentarios. Comentar.

LIGHT FACTS

Brighten your science knowledge with these fun light facts for kids:


  • In physics, light refers to electromagnetic radiation. The light we normally talk about in everyday life refers to the visible spectrum (the part of the electromagnetic spectrum that the human eye can see).

  • Other animals can see parts of the spectrum that humans can’t. For example, a large number of insects can see ultraviolet (UV) light.

  • UV light can be used to show things the human eye can’t see, coming in handy for forensic scientists.

  • The wavelength of infrared light is too long to be visible to the human eye.

  • Scientists study the properties and behaviors of light in a branch of physics known as optics.

  • Isaac Newton observed that a thin beam of sunlight hitting a glass prism on an angle creates a band of visible colors that includes red, orange, yellow, green, blue, indigo and violet (ROYGBIV). This occurred because different colors travel through glass (and other mediums) at different speeds, causing them to refract at different angles and separate from each other.

  • Light travels very, very fast. The speed of light in a vacuum (an area empty of matter) is around 186,000 miles per second (300,000 kilometres per second).

  • Light travels slower through different mediums such as glass, water and air. These mediums are given a refractive index to describe by how much they slow the movement of light. Glass has a refractive index of 1.5, meaning that lights travels through it at around 124,000 miles per second (200,000 kilometres per second). The refractive index of water is 1.3 while the refractive index of air is 1.0003, meaning that air only slightly slows down light.

  • Light takes 1.255 seconds to get from the Earth to the Moon.

  • Sunlight can reach a depth of around 80 metres (262 feet) in the ocean.

  • One of the many things Italian scientist Galileo Galilei worked on was telescopes, producing telescopes with around 30x magnification in some of his later work. These telescopes helped him discover the four largest moons orbiting Jupiter (later named the Galilean satellites).

  • Photosynthesis is a process that involves plants using energy from sunlight to convert carbon dioxide into food.

“Why do dark colours absorb heat?”

Have you ever been told that wearing light colours on a hot day will keep you cooler? Dark colours get hotter than light colours for one big reason: Dark colours absorb more light!

In fact, without light there wouldn’t be any colour at all! When we see colour, it’s because we see light that gets reflected off of something.

Do you have a blue shirt? The reason it looks blue is because when sunshine (or another type of light) hits the shirt, most of the light’s energy is absorbed by the shirt, but the blue energy of light bounces off the shirt. Our eyes can see the energy that bounces off, and to us, the shirt looks blue.

Lighter colours reflect the most light. Darker colours absorb more, but all of that absorbed energy doesn’t just disappear! Energy never just disappears, but it can change. Light that gets absorbed by clothing becomes heat!

Light energy is what makes your warmer, so if you want to cool down, wearing a colour that reflects a lot of light energy is a good choice. 

                         

29/05/2013 23:41 miprimerzarzablog #. SOCIAL AND NATURAL SCIENCE No hay comentarios. Comentar.

ELECTRICITY and MAGNETISM - Questions

  1. How is electricity produced?
  2. What is an atom?
  3. Which particles does an atom contain? What type of electric charge have they got?
  4. When is an object electrically neutral?
  5. Why can objects become electrically charged?
  6. What force is there between objects with identical electrical charges?
  7. What is a conductor? Examples.
  8. What is an insulator? Examples.
  9. What distribute electric current to our homes?
  10. What happens to electricity in an electric lamp?
  11. Make a chart with the parts of an electrical circuit, including their functions, their symbols and an example of each.
  12. What is magnetism?
  13. What is a compass? What part of the compass points to our planet’s magnetic north pole?
  14. If you break a magnet into two pieces, how many poles will there be? Will both pieces have a north and a south pole? How many magnets will you have?
  15. What four characteristics do electricity and magnetism have in common?
  16. What provides the electric current for an electromagnet?
  17. What happens when an electric circuit is open?

 

16/05/2013 18:32 miprimerzarzablog #. SOCIAL AND NATURAL SCIENCE No hay comentarios. Comentar.

MAPAS INTERACTIVOS

No os olvidéis de seguir practicando la geografía española, europea y mundial mientras jugáis con estos mapas interactivos...

ENERGY - Questions

  1. What is energy?
  2. Which are the most common forms of energy? Give an example of each one.
  3. What type of energy depends on an object’s mass and velocity?
  4. What type of energy is there in carbohydrates?
  5. What happens when an object releases thermal energy?
  6. When does an object’s potential energy decrease?
  7. What are non-renewable sources of energy?
  8. What type of energy sources are replaced naturally?
  9. What is natural gas?
  10. What is coal?
  11. What is petroleum?
  12. What is uranium? What happens when we release the energy in uranium?
  13. Why are non-renewable sources of energy limited?
  14. What are the main alternative sources of energy?
  15. What keeps the water in a reservoir?
  16. What type of energy has the water got when it’s in the reservoir?
  17. What type of energy has the turbine of a reservoir got when it’s moving?
  18. What moves the blades of a wind turbine?
  19. Where do we get biofuels from?
  20. What is the rule of the three R’s?
17/04/2013 09:18 miprimerzarzablog #. SOCIAL AND NATURAL SCIENCE No hay comentarios. Comentar.

ENERGY SOURCES WEBQUEST

                  20110126232359-webquest.png

This term project is to solve the Energy Sources Webquest we have created for you.

Work hard, make your best, have fun and enjoy learning about Energy Sources.

Now click and start living a WEBQUEST experience!!!

11/04/2013 10:45 miprimerzarzablog #. SOCIAL AND NATURAL SCIENCE No hay comentarios. Comentar.

PITCH DROP EXPERIMENT

                      

The pitch drop experiment is a long-term experiment which measures the flow of a piece of pitch over many years. Pitch is the name for any of a number of highly viscous liquids which appear solid, most commonly bitumen. At room temperature, tar pitch flows at a very slow rate, taking several years to form a single drop.

The most famous version of the experiment was started in 1927 by Professor Thomas Parnell of the University of Queensland in Brisbane, Australia, to demonstrate to students that some substances that appear to be solid are in fact very-high-viscosity fluids. Parnell poured a heated sample of pitch into a sealed funnel and allowed it to settle for three years. In 1930, the seal at the neck of the funnel was cut, allowing the pitch to start flowing. Large droplets form and fall over the period of about a decade.

The eighth drop fell on 28 November 2000, allowing experimenters to calculate that the pitch has a viscosity approximately 230 billion (2.3×1011) times that of water. 

The ninth drop is expected to fall in 2013!!

Timeline

DateEventDuration

(months)

Duration

(years)

1927     Experiment set up  
1930     The stem was cut  
December 1938     1st drop fell96–1078.0–8.9
February 1947     2nd drop fell998.3
April 1954     3rd drop fell867.2
May 1962     4th drop fell978.1
August 1970     5th drop fell998.3
April 1979     6th drop fell1048.7
July 1988     7th drop fell1119.3
28 November 2000     8th drop fell14812.3

HUMAN REPRODUCTION - Questions

 

  1. What are the primary sex characteristics?
  2. What are the secondary sex characteristics?
  3. When do secondary sex characteristics start appearing?
  4. When do boys usually go through puberty?
  5. What happens to a girl’s hips during puberty?
  6. What parts of a woman’s body produce egg cells?
  7. What is the menstrual cycle? Explain it.
  8. How long is a woman’s menstrual cycle?
  9. What are the external sex organs of the female reproductive system?
  10. What are the internal organs of the female reproductive system? Where are they located?
  11. What are the female gametes called?
  12. What is the muscular canal between the vulva and the uterus called?
  13. What parts of the male reproductive system are external?
  14. Which parts of the man’s body produce sperm cells?
  15. What is the bag of skin around the testicles called?
  16. What do the seminal vesicles produce?
  17. What protects the glans at the end of the penis?
  18. How does fertilisation occur?
  19. When does the embryo join itself to the wall of the uterus?
  20. What does the afterbirth include?
04/04/2013 11:48 miprimerzarzablog #. SOCIAL AND NATURAL SCIENCE No hay comentarios. Comentar.

THE BRAIN and THE NERVOUS SYSTEM

NERVOUS SYSTEM - I’M SENSING SOMETHING

Our advanced nervous system allows us to solve complex problems.Since you’re reading this page, we figure you’ve got a nervous system. If you were an insect you would also have a nervous system, but it would be a lot simpler. Even animals that don’t think have simple nervous systems called nerve nets that help them move. 

Your nervous system is divided into two parts. Your central nervous system includes your brain and your spinal cord. Your peripheral nervous system is made up of the network of neurons that spans your organs, muscles, and body. The neurons in both systems work together to help you think, survive, and change the world around you. 

WHAT DOES THIS SYSTEM DO?

The nervous system is about action and senses. Animals are able to sense what is going on in their surroundings and do something in reaction to that input. If you see a bike that might hit you, you jump out of the way. In that example, your nervous system was involved in many ways. Your eyes saw the bike, your brain figured out the bike might hit you, and your brain told your muscles to make your legs jump out of the way. You sensed and then acted. 

The nervous system controls the senses, movement, and bloodflow in your body.The nervous system also senses activity inside of your body. Most of the nervous system response inside of your body is not in your control. Your body automatically senses and reacts to stimulus. Think about eating your lunch. As you eat, your nervous system triggers the start of digestion and release of many hormones and enzymes throughout your body. 

INTERACTING WITH OTHER SYSTEMS

Your nervous system interacts with every other system in your body. In the same way that all of your cells need oxygen transported by the circulatory system, all of your tissues and organs require instruction and direction from the nervous system. There is obvious interaction between your muscles and your nervous system. That interaction helps you move around and interact with your environment. 

There are many hidden interactions going on within your body. Your endocrine system works closely with your brain and central nervous system to control the creation of specific hormones and enzymes. Your digestive and excretory systems work with the nervous system in both conscious and unconscious ways. While digestion goes on without your thoughts, eating, peeing, and pooping are under your control. 

PARTS OF THE SYSTEM

Even insects can have a small brain and a system of ganglia.The nervous system is made up of nervous tissues that are, in turn, made up of many types of neurons. There are billions of neurons connected throughout your body. These neurons are connected end to end and transmit electrical impulses from one point to another. 

Your peripheral nervous system has two types of neurons that are constantly at work. Neurons that send impulses from the central nervous system to your limbs and organs are called efferent neurons. Neurons that receive sensory information and transmit to the central nervous system are called afferent neurons. Therefore, as the stimulus is received, the afferent neurons work and as reaction is needed, the efferent neurons go to work. Afferent=ReceiveEfferent=Act. The words are really close to each other, that’s why repeated the idea.

HOW THE BODY WORKS

                   

Click on the image and then, once in the website, click on a body part to watch MOVIES, take QUIZZES, read ARTICLES, solve WORDFINDS, and do ACTIVITIES... about the PARTS OF YOUR BODY.

A different way of learning!!


Did you realise?

Bones aren’t completely solid, there are spaces between the hard parts. The hard parts are made out of bone tissue. This tissue contains cells and minerals, such as calcium and phosphorus, which are responsible for the bones’s hardness.

In some of the small spaces, there are nerves and blood vessels that provide the cells with nutrients; in other spaces, there’s tissue called bone marrow. Bone marrow can be red or yellow. Red bone marrow is a tissue that produces blood cells. Yellow bone marrow is a fatty tissue that acts as an energy store.

                                 

22/02/2013 14:15 miprimerzarzablog #. SOCIAL AND NATURAL SCIENCE No hay comentarios. Comentar.

MUSCLES and BONES - Questions

  1. What type of skeleton have humans got?
  2. Which organs of the body does the skeleton protect?
  3. What are muscles made of?
  4. What does bone marrow produce?
  5. How many bones are there in the human body?
  6. How many bones are there in the feet?
  7. How many bones are there in the hands?
  8. What do the bones of the head do?
  9. Which bones connect each upper extremity to the trunk?
  10. Where are your metacarpals located?
  11. What shape are the muscles in your legs?
  12. What type of muscles can you control?
  13. What do the orbicular eye muscles do?
  14. Which muscle bends the leg at the knee?
  15. What type of joint can’t move?
  16. What type of joint is in your shoulder?
  17. What stops the bones in your joints from touching?
  18. What vitamins help you build strong bones?
22/02/2013 11:32 miprimerzarzablog #. SOCIAL AND NATURAL SCIENCE No hay comentarios. Comentar.

THE LOCOMOTOR SYSTEM

  • SKELETONS INSIDE AND OUT

Skeletal systems come in many forms. You have a skeleton inside of your body (endoskeleton) made up of bones. Insects and crustaceans have skeletal systems on the outside or their bodies (exoskeletons) that are made of hard plates. 

Skeletons hold up the structureOrganisms like starfish do not have bones or plates. They have skeletons made up of fluids inside of tubes within their bodies. The fluid skeletal systems are called hydrostatic. All animals that live outside of the water need some kind of skeletal system to support or protect them. 

WHAT DOES THIS SYSTEM DO?

We already hinted at the purpose of a skeletal system. Protection and support are the two big reasons that organisms have skeletal systems. In your body, the skeleton works very closely with the muscular system to help you move. Without the bones of your skeleton, you would be a blob of water-filled tissues. The bones create a framework to which your muscles and organs can connect. Your skeleton also plays a role in protection, especially in your head. The bones of your skull protect your all-important brain. Your ribs protect most of your internal organs from impact as well. Other animals with exoskeletons receive obvious protection from their skeleton. Crabs and insects have hard shells made of chitin to protect their entire bodies. 
Structure of bone

INTERACTING WITH OTHER SYSTEMS

Your skeletal system does not work alone. We already mentioned the interaction with your muscular system. Muscles connect to your skeleton and they contract and move the skeleton along. Your skeletal system is made up of cartilage and calcified bone that work together. They help the process of movement happen in a smoother manner. The calcified bones of your skeleton also work with the circulatory system. Marrow inside of your bones helps produce the cells inside of you blood. Both red blood cells and white blood cells are created in your bones.

  • MUSCULAR SYSTEM - MEAT ON THE BONES

Many advanced animals have muscular systems. You know you do. Did you know that your muscular system is made up of three different types of muscular tissue? You have smoothcardiac, and voluntary muscle tissue in your body. Smooth muscle is muscle you rarely control such as the muscle in your intestinal tract. Cardiac muscle is very specific tissue found in your heart. Voluntary muscle is the muscle that helps you move. All of those tissues add up to a muscular system that is found through your body. There is more to the muscular system than the muscles that help you move.

WHAT DOES THIS SYSTEM DO?

The big purpose of the muscles found in your body is movement. We could be talking about the movement of your legs while you walk. We could be talking about the beating of your heart. We could also be talking about the contraction of a very small blood vessel in your brain. 

You have no control over most of the muscular system. You do control the voluntary muscle in your arms, legs, neck, and torso. You have little or no control over the heart or smooth muscle. Those other muscles are under the control of the autonomic nervous system (ANS).

INTERACTING WITH OTHER SYSTEMS

We just teased the fact that your muscular system is closely connected to the nervous system. That makes sense since you usually have to think before you can move. Even though thinking is not always involved, the neurons of the nervous system are connected to most of the cells in your muscular system. You have smooth muscles that line your digestive system and help move food through your intestines. Smooth muscle also surrounds your circulatory system and lymph system. Those muscle tissues are spread throughout your body and are even involved in controlling the temperature of your body.

MUSCLES HELP YOU MOVE

The main parts of your voluntary muscular system include the muscles, and tendons. Tendons connect your muscles to your bone at insertion points. 

When the muscle shortens, the bones are pulled closer together. Muscles called flexors force your joints to bend. Muscles called extensors cause your limbs to straighten. A bicep is a flexor and the triceps are extensors. You may have also heard of ligaments. They are batches of connective tissue that bind bones to each other. Muscles, tendons, and ligaments can been found working together in almost all of your joints.

CIRCULATION and EXCRETION- Questions

  1. Why does the body need nutrients and oxygen? How are they carried around our bodies?
  2. What does the body do with the substances it doesn’t need or which are harmful?
  3. What does the circulatory system do?
  4. Which systems are involved in the process of waste elimination?
  5. Explain: pulmonary circulation and general circulation.
  6. What is the difference between oxygenated blood and deoxygenated blood?
  7. What does the blood carry? What does it contains?
  8. How many types of blood cells are there? Name them and say what their functions are.
  9. Where do the blood vessels go?
  10. Which blood vessels carry blood to the right atrium?
  11. What are the capillaries?
  12. How many chambers has the heart got? How are they called?
  13. Which chamber of the heart pumps blood around the body?
  14. What does the septum do?
  15. Where does blood pick up oxygen?
  16. What are the functions of the excretory system? Name the two main parts of the excretory system.
  17. What do sweat glands do? What does sweat contain?
  18. What are the main parts of the urinary tract? And what are their functions?
  19. Explain the process of eliminating waste products and harmful substances through the urinary tract.
  20. Where are the kidneys?
  21. What blood vessels carry blood to the kidneys?

How much do you know about your heart?

Find out by taking this quiz!

If you still need to look for more information about your Heart and the Circulatory System, try here.

DIGESTION and RESPIRATION - Questions

  1. What is a cell? What are the main functions it perform?
  2. What do groups of cell form? Name and explain what the functions of the different tissues?
  3. What do groups of tissues form? Name five of them.
  4. What do groups of organs form? Name a few of them.
  5. What are the basic life processes different organs perform? Classify the systems each basic life process belong to.
  6. Which are the parts of the digestive system? Name them in order.
  7. Where does digestion start? Explain it.
  8. How many parts has the small intestine got?
  9. Which part of the body produces saliva?
  10. Where does the body store bile?
  11. Define: bolus, chyme and chyle.
  12. What are the five most important nutrients for our body. Explain why each one is important.
  13. Which food contains fat? How many portions should we eat a day?
  14. What do pasta and bread contain? How many portions should we eat a day?
  15. Which foods have got lots of proteins in? How many portions should we eat a day?
  16. Which foods have got lots of vitamins in? How many portions should we eat a day?
  17. What does a healthy diet include?
  18. Which are the parts of the respiratory system? Name them in order.
  19. Which are the two actions breathing includes? Name and explain them.
  20. Name and explain the exchange of gases that occurs when breathing.

 

24/01/2013 10:03 miprimerzarzablog #. SOCIAL AND NATURAL SCIENCE No hay comentarios. Comentar.

Build a Digestive System

The digestive systems of humans and bison are adapted to their diet.

Can you reassemble in the proper order the different components of their systems?

Gallery interactives

22/01/2013 10:46 miprimerzarzablog #. SOCIAL AND NATURAL SCIENCE No hay comentarios. Comentar.

What is a System?

Complexity of systems compared to cellsA system is a group of organs that work together and provide an organism with an advantage for survival. It is the most complex organization in your body and the final level of the progression from cells to tissues to organs and then systems. Systems work alone and with other systems to allow your body to maintain homeostasis. Homeostasis  is a stable internal environment that allows you (and your cells) to survive. 

While every one of your systems is needed to survive, your nervous system is the most important as you continue reading this page. Your eyes and brain are reading these words and remembering all of the information about systems. If you think about it, you are also using your muscular system to help move your eyes, pupils, and keep your head up. 

Organs Working Together

Organs are a part of every system. Your heart is classified as an organ and it is a part of the circulatory system. Organs can work within several systems of your body. Many organs also have specific cells or tissues that have different functionality. Your kidneys are not only a part of your excretory system; they also have specific parts that serve the endocrine system. 

You, and many advanced mammals, have similar organs and systems. However, there is a wide variety of organ types found throughout the animal kingdom. Some aquatic animals have organs that remove salts from salt water and an animal like a cow might have multiple stomachs in the digestive system. 

Systems Can’t Work Alone

Systems connect to other systemsWe just explained how organs could be a part of several systems. Similarly, systems rarely work alone. All of the systems in an organism are interconnected. A simple example is the connection between the circulatory and respiratory systems. As blood circulates through your body, it eventually needs fresh oxygen (O2) from the air. When the blood reaches the lungs, part of the respiratory system, the blood is re-oxygenated. Your stomach, part of the digestive system, constantly interacts with your endocrine system and spreads hormones throughout your body.

17/01/2013 19:05 miprimerzarzablog #. SOCIAL AND NATURAL SCIENCE No hay comentarios. Comentar.

10 facts about potatoes!!!

Did you know...???

  • Potatoes were first eaten more than 6,000 years ago by indigenous people living in the Andes mountains of Peru.
  • The Incas measured time by how long it took for potatoes to cook.
  • Religious leaders denounced the potato because it wasn’t mentioned in the Bible.
  • Potatoes are the world’s fourth food staple - after wheat, corn and rice.
  • Potatoes are grown in more than 125 countries (even in space - in 1995).
  • Every year enough potatoes are grown worldwide to cover a four-lane motorway circling the world six times.
  • China is the world’s largest potatoe producer.
  • Namibians each eat an average of 110 kilograms of potatoes every year - not quite as much as the Germans consume.
  • In 1778 Prussia and Austria fought the Potatoe War in which each side tried to starve the other by consuming their potatoe crop.
  • During the Alaskan Klondike gold rush of the 1890’s, potatoes were so valued for their vitamin C content that miners traded them for gold.

 

15/01/2013 14:12 miprimerzarzablog #. SOCIAL AND NATURAL SCIENCE No hay comentarios. Comentar.

EUROPEAN UNION - Questions

  1. What is the EU?
  2. When was it created?
  3. What is the main goal of the EU?
  4. When was the European Economic Community created?
  5. Which six countries founded the European Economic Community (EEC) in 1957?
  6. What treaty did the member states of the EEC sign in 1992?
  7. How many member states has the EU got at the moment?
  8. Why has the EU flag got twelve stars?
  9. Which European institution prepares new laws?
  10. When did Spain join the European Economic Community?
  11. Who can participate in the Erasmus programme?
  12. What is the European climate like?
  13. Why are Europeans living longer lives?
  14. What values is European society based on?
  15. Why do people immigrate to the EU?
  16. Which sector of the European economy employs the most people?
  17. Which sector employs the fewest people?
  18. Which country has got the highest percentage of electricity produce from renewable sources of energy?
  19. Which country has got the lowest percentage?
  20. What position does Spain occupy in this list?

 

11/01/2013 14:10 miprimerzarzablog #. SOCIAL AND NATURAL SCIENCE No hay comentarios. Comentar.

EUROPA POLÍTICA

Repasa y estudia la geografía política de Europa a través de estos divertidos juegos interactivos. 

 

10/01/2013 18:55 miprimerzarzablog #. SOCIAL AND NATURAL SCIENCE No hay comentarios. Comentar.

SPAIN'S POPULATION - Questions

  1. What is the total population of an area?
  2. What is the real population change? Explain your answer.
  3. How do we calculate the population density?
  4. What type of information do municipal registries keep?
  5. How often is there a national census in Spain?
  6. Why has Spain got a low birth rate?
  7. Why is Spain’s net migration positive?
  8. What is the population density like in large cities?
  9. What is the surface area of Spain?
  10. What is the population density like in Extremadura?
  11. What is the population density like in Madrid?
  12. Which autonomous community has got a bigger population?
  13. Which has got a higher population density?
  14. Where does the rural population live?
  15. Why are there more females than males in Spain?
  16. What percentage of Spaniards live in towns and cities?
  17. Which population group do people over the age of seventy-five belong to?
  18. What is a population pyramid?
  19. When did many Spaniards immigrate to the Americas?
  20. Which group makes up about 13% of the Spanish population?
  21. What should we do when new immigrants arrive in Spain?
  22. How did Spain’s migration patterns change at the end of the 20th century?

 

13/12/2012 11:46 miprimerzarzablog #. SOCIAL AND NATURAL SCIENCE No hay comentarios. Comentar.

Curious facts about our national symbols

THE COLOURS OF THE FLAG

• In the times of King Carlos III, the Spanish flag was white, with a Picture of the royal coat of arms in the centre. White was the colour of the Bourbon royal dynasty. In other countries where the Bourbons ruled, such as France and Italy, the national flags were also white.
• In those times, warships and trading ships used flags to show their nationality, but many countries had flags with the same colours. It was difficult to see the differences at a distance or when it wasn’t windy. When people saw a strange ship, they didn’t know its nationality until the ship was very close, and that could be dangerous during a war!
• King Carlos III decided to change his country’s flag. He organised a competition and people created 12 different designs. The king finally chose a red and yellow design because it was easy to see on ships from a distance. That is why red and yellow are the colours of Spain’s flag today.


THE ANTHEM

• The Spanish national anthem was originally a military march, a grenadier (an elite military corps from the 18th century) march to be precise. In 1770, King Carlos III proclaimed it the anthem of the Spanish Crown. It has been our national anthem since then.

                             

28/11/2012 22:18 miprimerzarzablog #. SOCIAL AND NATURAL SCIENCE No hay comentarios. Comentar.

SPAIN'S POLITICAL SYSTEM - Questions

  1. What is the Constitution?
  2. When was the Spanish Constitution approved?
  3. What does the word “democracy” mean?
  4. What are elections for? How often are they held?
  5. How old do you have to be to vote in Spain?
  6. Who is the head of state in Spain?
  7. Which Spanish institution monitors the government’s activities?
  8. How many Members of Parliament are there in the Spanish Congress?
  9. Who chooses the ministers of the Spanish government?
  10. What type of power have magistrates got?
  11. Which power passes new laws and makes changes to old laws?
  12. How many autonomous communities are there in Spain?
  13. What are Ceuta and Melilla? Where are they?
  14. What official symbols have all autonomous communities got?
  15. Which two autonomous communities are not part of the Iberian Peninsula?
  16. Which seas does the Iberian Peninsula border on?
  17. What organisation passed the Universal Declaration of Human Rights?
  18. Which human rights are included in the Spanish Constitution of 1978?
  19. Which Spanish citizens must obey the law?
  20. Who has got the right to clean water?

 

 

28/11/2012 22:17 miprimerzarzablog #. SOCIAL AND NATURAL SCIENCE No hay comentarios. Comentar.

SPANISH GEOGRAPHY

Locate on the map each of the provinces of Spain.

Click on the image to start the game.

CONTEMPORARY SPAIN - Questions

  1. Who was the king of Spain on 2nd May 1808?
  2. Where was the Constitution of 1812 signed?
  3. Who became king after the War of Independence?
  4. Who was the first constitutional monarch? When did she rule? Which political group wanted her to have more power?
  5. When did the First Republic start? When did it finished?
  6. Who became king after the First Republic?
  7. When did Primo de Rivera establish a dictatorship?
  8. When did Alfonso XIII leave Spain?
  9. When did the Second Republic start? When did it finished?
  10. What happened in Spain during the Second Republic?
  11. When did the Spanish Civil War start? When did it end? Who won the war? What happened as a result?
  12. Who did the nationalists support during the Civil War?
  13. Who was General Franco? What form of government did he establish in Spain?
  14. When did Franco die?
  15. Who was Spain’s first president after Franco died?
  16. Who tried to lead a military coup in 1981?
  17. Which political party won the elections in 1982?
  18. Which political party was in power in 1998?
  19. What style of buildings did the architect Antonio Gaudí design?
  20. What type of artist were Chillida and Gargallo?
  21. What style of painting was Salvador Dalí famous for using?
  22. Look for the definitions of the following concepts in a dictionary: military coup, republic, monarchy, dictatorship, democracy and strike.

The Spanish Civil War

 

  • The Spanish Civil War started in the year 1936.
  • General Francisco Franco led a military coup against the government of the Second Republic.
  • Spaniards were divided into two groups: the republicans and the nationalist.
  • The war ended in the year 1939. The nationalists won the war.
  • General Francisco Franco established a dictatorship.

 

13/11/2012 22:27 miprimerzarzablog #. SOCIAL AND NATURAL SCIENCE No hay comentarios. Comentar.

The War of Independence (1808-1814)


  • The Revolt of Aranjuez (1808) was a revolt against Carlos IV led by his own son Fernando VII, an unprecedented event in the history of Spain.
  • As a result of the uprising, Carlos IV abdicated the throne in favour of his son Fernando VII.
  • After this confusing situation, Napoleon managed to get Carlos IV and Fernando VII to Bayonne and to give up the throne to José Bonaparte, his brother.
  • Meanwhile Fernando VII remained in prison. When he returned to Spain in 1814, he was received with great jubilation by the entire nation, who named him Fernando the Desired.

THE CONTEMPORARY AGE

QUESTIONS:

  1. What year did the French Revolution begin?
  2. What were the causes of the French Revolution?
  3. What were the consequences of the French Revolution?
  4. When did the Industrial Revolution begin?
  5. What social group did factory workers belong to?
  6. What does imperialism mean?
  7. Which two countries had the most colonies in the 19th century?
  8. What did countries that were imperial powers want from their colonies?
  9. When was the First World War?
  10. What year did the Second World War end?
  11. Which two countries became superpowers after the Second World War?
  12. Why was the United Nations (UN) established? When was it established?
  13. What does “Cold War” mean?
  14. Which two cities were destroyed by atomic bombs?
  15. What is one negative effect of globalisation?
  16. How is transport today different from transport in the 19th century?
  17. Why are there lots of schools in Spain now?
  18. Why should all people be equal before the law?
  19. What does the legislative power do?
  20. What does the executive power do?
  21. What does the judicial power do?
  22.  When were the three separated powers established?

 

 

WWI and WWII

Countries were involved in World War I

Central Powers:

  • Germany
  • Austria-Hungary
  • Ottoman Empire
  • Bulgaria

Allies and associated powers:

  • Serbia
  • Russia
  • France
  • Britain
  • Belgium
  • Romania
  • US (entered in 1917 only after a German u-boat sunk a boat full of civilians) 
  • The British Commonwealth countries: Australia, New Zealand, South Africa, India, etc. Canada was part of this group but was almost instantly looked upon as a rising superpower for it’s soldiers bravery and tactics, the Germans started calling them the "storm troopers" after they took Vimy Ridge (a vantage point previously thought impossible to take after numerous tries by the British and french) 
  • Italy

 

Countries were involved in World War II

Allies Vs Axis Powers:

World War 2 involved most of the world’s nations which fought for either of two military alliances - the Axis Powers and the Allies. 
The key members of the Allies of World War 1 - France, Britain, Russia and the United States once again fought against Germany but they also had to fight against their former allies of Italy and Japan which joined the Nazi Germany. Just like World War 1, World War 2 started in Europe with the German invasion of Poland on September 1, 1939, which is traditionally viewed as the beginning of war. 

Countries that Joined the Allies:

Most of the countries of world joined the Allies although some of them were controlled by pro-Axis regimes. The original anti-German military alliance consisting of Poland, France and Britain was eventually joined by the following countries (by alphabetical order):

  • Aden Protectorate (former South Yemen)
  • Albania
  • Argentina
  • Australia
  • Belgium
  • Bolivia
  • Brazil
  • British Malaya (today’s Malaysia and Singapore)
  • British Raj (today’s India, Bangladesh, Burma and Pakistan)
  • Canada
  • Chile
  • China
  • Colombia
  • Costa Rica
  • Cuba
  • Cyprus
  • Czechoslovakia
  • Denmark
  • Dominican Republic
  • Dutch East Indies (present-day Indonesia and New Guinea)
  • Ecuador
  • El Salvador
  • French Indochina (today’s Cambodia, Laos and Vietnam)
  • French Guiana
  • Greece
  • Guatemala
  • Guyana
  • Haiti
  • Honduras
  • Iran
  • Iraq
  • Luxembourg
  • Malta
  • Mexico
  • Mongolia
  • The Netherlands
  • Newfoundland
  • New Zealand
  • Nicaragua
  • Norway
  • Palestine
  • Panama
  • Peru
  • Philippines
  • Saudi Arabia
  • Soviet Union
  • Syria
  • Trucial States (today’s United Arab Emirates)
  • Turkey
  • The United States
  • Uruguay
  • Venezuela
  • Yugoslavia

The Allied coalition also included all African countries except for Italian colonies of Somalia, Ethiopia and Italian North Africa (present-day Libya), and Spanish and Portuguese colonies of Mozambique, Angola, Spanish Sahara (present-day Western Sahara) and Portuguese Guinea (today’s Guinea-Bissau) which were neutral like their colonial rulers. Countries such as Italy which later left the Axis powers and joined the Allies are not considered Allied states. 

States that Allied Themselves with the Axis Powers:

The Axis powers were officially founded by the Tripartite Pact signed between the Nazi Germany, Italy and Japan on September 27, 1940. Countries that allied themselves with the Axis powers include:

  • Bulgaria
  • Finland
  • Hungary
  • Romania
  • Vichy France
  • Thailand
  • Formosa (present-day Taiwan)
  • Manchuria


The Axis powers created a number of puppet states in occupied areas but they usually are not considered Axis states although some of them actively collaborated with the Axis such as the newly established Independent State of Croatia and the Slovak Republic. However, both of them ceased to exist after the end of World War 2 and were rejoined with Czechoslovakia and Yugoslavia, respectively, both of which were Allied states. 

Neutral Countries:

Few countries remained neutral during the entire World War 2:

  • Switzerland
  • Sweden
  • Spain
  • Portugal
  • Iceland
  • Ireland
  • Afghanistan
  • North Yemen
  • Oman
  • Nepal
  • Tibet and the above mentioned Spanish and Portuguese colonies in Africa.
29/10/2012 18:06 miprimerzarzablog #. SOCIAL AND NATURAL SCIENCE No hay comentarios. Comentar.

Writing Task 5

Friday, 26th October 2012

Factual writing 

Write an article for a music magazine about a popular band. Say how long they have been famous, explain why a lot of people like them and give your opinion of their songs.

                                           

26/10/2012 14:05 miprimerzarzablog #. SOCIAL AND NATURAL SCIENCE No hay comentarios. Comentar.

Causes of French Revolution

Wars:

A number of major wars had taken place in the forty years leading up to the revolution. France used to always participate in the war and King Louis had to invest a lot of money in wars and the weapons. All this money came from the taxes paid by the 3rd estate. For example: the war with British: in 1756 the French fought with the Americans against British. This caused the government run low on money at a time when prices were high. This contributed to the overall causes leading up to the revolution because it outraged the peasants to be so burdened that they could not afford to eat. On top of that they had failed crops which further increased the price of the essential commodities. All this lead to unrest and food riots.

Price increase:
In 1700, the price of essential things increased so much that the wages of the workers could not match with the price of the commodities. So the families could not afford food and other basic necessities with such low incomes. This is long term causes which lead to French revolution as there was a lot of discontentment among the masses.

Poor Harvest:
In 1787-88, the harvests were very bad due to very severe cold winters. Thousands of people suffered because there was not enough food. Angry mobs gathered in the streets. The women played an important role in the French revolution as these poor women of Paris marched to the king’s palace at Versailles to demand bread for their hungry children. This is one of the short term economical causes of revolution.

 

Burden of New Taxes:
In order to create funds for the war and to buy the weapons, the King Louis XVI kept on increasing the taxes which further added burden on the third estate as discussed in the other section. This lead to French revolution as the poor peasants could not cope up with theses taxes and could not do anything about it as they had no voice. They wanted to have a say in as to how the country should be run.

The First Estate:
the first estate mainly consisted of clergy. This was the Roman Catholic Church. They were the 0.3% of France’s population and owned about 10% of the land. On top of that, they didn’t pay taxes even thought they were one of the wealthiest people of France. The peasants paid 10% of their salary only to the Archbishops, Bishops and Abbots. The leaders of the clergy, bishops lived like nobles. The first estate contributed to the revolution but it was a short term cause. The Clergy took advantage of the fact that the king was so indecisive and non-judgmental. They thought that they could gain power by helping and advising the king when he would reach a dilemma. The greed for power contributed to the revolution because then the other estates wanted power as well.

The Second Estate:
The second estates were aristocrats. They made up 1.5% of the population and owned 20% of the land. They didn’t pay taxes either. They often ordered peasants to work on their land and made them pay to use the mills. They were given control over other villages. They were hated by both the estates. They were hated by the first estate because the aristocrats had control over more land. They were well of and wealthy and on top of that they didn’t have to pay any taxes. Aristocrats were hated by the peasants because they used to be used as slaves. The second estate contributed to the revolution because they refused to help King Louis by not paying the taxes especially during 1787 when the money was needed to fund the war against the British. The second estate did not help King Louis XVI to bring about reforms in the taxation system. In 1783, Charles de Calonne (Controller General of Finance) suggested that the nobility should also pay the taxes. The nobility refused to cooperate which further increased the economic problems of France.

Unfair taxation and the Third Estate:
The 3rd estate made up 98.2% of the population. The 3rd estate consisted of middle class and peasants. There were lawyers, doctors, bankers, soldiers, merchants, priests, artisans, urban workers and peasants. The majority of the third estates were the peasants. They owned little land. They used to be abused by the first and the second estates. They used to call the poorest members of the third estate sans-culottes. It was a term created by the French in 1790 to describe the poorest members of the thirst estate because they wore pantaloons instead of the more in fashion clothes. The taxation system prevalent in France was faulty as the poorest were forced to pay the maximum taxes. The 3rd estate comprising of mainly the peasants had to pay 1/10 of their salary to the church. This was known as “tithe’. There were many other taxes that they also had to pay. They paid the “taille” which was a sort of income tax. They had to pay “Seigneurial’ to the local landlord, or lord of the manor. These taxes were known as “feudal dues”. For example; the landlord would charge peasants heavily to use his mill to grind corn. Corvée (work tax) was paid for few days each year. Peasants had to work hard for the upkeep of local roads. Gabelle was a tax on salt. There was tax on salt since it helped to preserve food and “Aide” was a tax on bottle of wine. The third estate weren’t paid sufficiently and they had to pay so many different taxes. The revolution took place because there was unfair taxation. The poorest community of France was paying high taxes for multiple reasons. They paid taxes so that the aristocrats can live a lavish life. They paid taxes to fund the war. They paid taxes to save the economy of the country.They are the real heroes of the French revolution because they were the ones who took the first action which was known as the beginning of the French revolution. Because the peasants wanted new constitution, the trigger took place. They wanted power that’s why they took over the king and gained power.

Population increase:
Population increase lead to the French revolution although it was a short term cause. The population increased dramatically in the 18th century. This caused peasants to become landless . This also meant that there was shortage of resources as they didn’t have surplus due to the poor harvest. Due to this reason the capable families worked really hard in order to feed their families and be capable of paying the taxes. This caused the revolution because it made the peasants want more land, money and power.

The age of Enlightment:
The enlightment was a period of revolution; a time where there was a major shift in the way the people thought. People began to question, investigate, reason and find the logic behind the theories. They were confident as they were going against the church / questioning the church, and who ever did that was executed. The enlightment affected areas like POLITICS, ARTS, LITERATURE, SCIENCE and last but not the least RELIGION. People started having secular thoughts. People started becoming open-minded and were ready to accept the change. They made their own laws and customs and adapted reality. Due to this the people became more knowledgeable New political ideas were evolved which lead to a new view of a government. The government system changed. People wanted to have representatives government not one person ruling the country. They wanted to change their form of government form absolute monarchy to democracy. All the citizens wanted to share power. More universities and book were made. This also gave people a better sense of equality. There was a desire to change the society. The philosophers often gathered in Paris and other European cities. They discussed politics, science and society. They changed their ideology. They believed in secular thoughts, “SOCIAL CONTACT “and the “GENERAL WILL”. Social contact was a deal with people for the good, the right to elect, impeaching a president (anyone who has power) and general will was that people should have a right to choose their ruler. These ideas and thoughts lead to the French revolution as the people of France became more aware of their rights and freedom and liberty.

Demands and The tennis court oath:
This was the trigger and led to the revolution. Louis XVI tried to prevent the national assembly from writing a new constitution by locking them out of their meeting rooms. However, they gathered in an indoor tennis court. There they took an oath not to disband until they had written the constitution. This was a major event which started the revolution because we can see that the people have gone against the king because he didn’t let the people make laws and regulations. This also indicates that the citizens desired change badly that is why they took this action and took the oath that they will make a new constitution. The third estate declared themselves as the national assembly. There were three main demands of the peasants. The first one was that the peasants wanted Necker to return and become the finance minister as they knew that he would sort out the monetary issues. Secondly, they wanted new constitution, rules that would give the king less power and give the third estate a voice in the running of France. Their last demand was that they wanted to rule the country as they made the majority of the population.

In conclusion, we can say that there were numerous causes which lead to the French Revolution out of which, most of them were economical. The revolution was imminent because the third estates were treated badly since they were abused, treated like slaves and paid heavy taxes when they couldn’t afford it. They didn’t have power either. The French revolution brought a sense of equality among the citizens of France and everybody shared power. All the causes of the French revolution are interconnected because one issue leads to a anther and piles up. And when all the causes pile up it becomes a burden and there is no way out, hence the majority wins and there is a new beginning. Like in this case, all the causes just piled up. When king Louis had no way out the wheel turned causing the majority to win, in this case the peasants and there was a new beginning. There was a new form of government, sense of equality and everybody had equal power. The political factors lead to the economical factors.

 

Modern Age Glossary

absolute monarchy: form of government where the king or queen has absolute power on all aspects of his or her subjects’ life.

architect: a person who designs buildings.

astrolabe: ancient instrument used by navigators and astronomers to determine latitude, longitude and time of day. It also determines the altitude of the Sun, planets, stars and Moon.

authoritarian monarchy: the politic system in which the kings in 15th Century have all the power.

bourgeois: the inhabitant of walled towns, formed by craftsmen, merchants…

caravel: a light sailing ship with two or three masts and lateen sails used by the Spanish and Portuguese in the 15th and 16th Centuries.

Classical culture: name given to the influence of Ancient Greek or Roman civilizations on language, philosophy, art… in the Renaissance.

clergy: the official leaders of a religious belief. colonisation: n. the act or process of establishing colonies.

compass: an instrument that is used for finding directions. It has a dial and a magnetic needle that always points to the North.

craftsman: a man who makes things skilfully with his hands.

decline: the period when something approaches an end.

Discovery: the act of discovering a place or a thing.

Golden Age: a flourishing period in arts and literature that took place in Spain during the 16th and 17th Centuries.

literature: name given to all creative writing of recognised artistic value.

Modern Age: the term used by historians to refer a period in the History from 1492 (Discovery of America) until 1789 (French Revolution).

navigation: the guidance of ships from place to place.

painter: an artist who paints.

patron: a person who supports and gives money to artists, writers or musicians.

peasant: a person who works on the land.

portolan charts: European navigation maps based on realistic descriptions of harbours and coasts.

Renaissance: means re-birth. A cultural movement that spanned roughly from the 14th Century to the 17th Century. It began in Italy and it later spread to the rest of Europe.

sculptor: a person who creates sculptures.

sextant: navigational instrument used to measure the altitude of a celestial object above the horizon and to determine its latitude and longitude.

silk: valuable/delicate cloth made from the fine treads produced by certain insect larvae.

spice: any of a variety of pungent or aromatic vegetable substances used to for seasoning food.

writer: a person who writes books, stories or articles as a job.

The Enlightenment: a philosophical and cultural movement in the eighteenth century that stressed human reasoning over blind faith and encouraged scientific thinking.

ART in the RENAISSANCE

Many of the new ideas and attitudes that marked the Renaissance times were portrayed in art. A new idea called humanism put a focus on human interests, needs, and abilities. This new idea changed how artists painted their subjects as well as the choice of subjects they painted. 

hands of Adam and God


Renaissance art is often divided up into two periods: 

Early Renaissance (1400-1479) - Artists learned by trying to emulate classical artists focusing on symmetry and creating the perfect form. This era featured such artists as Giotto, Masaccio, and Donatello. 

High Renaissance (1475-1525) - A rising interest in perspective and space gave the art even more realism. Great artists such as Michelangelo, Leonardo da Vinci, and Rafael flourished during this period. 

Change of Subjects: 

In the Middle Ages the subject of almost all European art was religion, specifically Christianity and the Catholic Church. Although Renaissance artists continued to paint religious paintings, they also branched out to other subjects including Greek and Roman mythology, historical subjects, and portraits of individuals. They also focused on the details of everyday life. 

School of Athens 
School of Athens by Raphael featured philosophers such as Plato, Aristotle, and Socrates.

Realism:

One of the big changes in art was to paint and sculpt subjects realistically. This is called realism and involves a number of techniques that make the subjects and background look like they would in real life. This also meant giving the subjects more emotional qualities. 

New Techniques and Styles: 

Many new techniques were introduced during the Renaissance. These techniques helped to enhance the quality and realism of the art. 

Perspective - perspective is drawing or painting a picture such that it looks like there are three dimensions. It gives the illusion that some objects in the painting are further away than others. 

Balance and Proportion - Drawing subjects such that they are the correct size when compared to each other. 

Use of Light and Dark - Many artists starting using light and shadows in their works to add drama, perspective, and timing to their art. 

Caravaggio’s use of  light and shadow 
Caravaggio used light and shadow to create drama


Sfumato - This was a technique used by Leonardo da Vinci to add additional perspective and dimension to paintings. It was a way of blurring the lines between subjects. This technique was used in Leonardo’s Mona Lisa. 

Mona Lisa 
The Mona Lisa used the sfumato technique


Foreshortening - Another technique that added perspective and depth to paintings, foreshortening is a way of shortening lines to give the illusion of depth. 

 

See also Renaissance for Kids.

Ten Fast Facts about THE MIDDLE AGES

1. The Middle Ages refers to a time in European history from 400-1500 AD. It occurred between the fall of the Roman Empire and the discovery of America (beginning of the Renaissance).

2. Historians usually divide the Middle Ages into three smaller periods called the Early Middle Ages, the High Middle Ages, and the Late Middle Ages.

3. During much of the Middle Ages, people in Europe were fighting against the Islamic Empire to take back the Eastern Mediterranean, especially Jerusalem, for the Christian religion. These wars were called the Crusades.

4. The Middle Ages was defined by a Feudal system in much of Europe. This system consisted of kings, lords, knights, vassals and peasants. The people who were part of the church played an important part also. When a person was born into a certain group, they rarely moved to another level.

5. The Feudal system was the law of the land, and the way that the upper class maintained control over the lower class. The upper class provided protection to the lower class and in exchange, the lower class worked for the upper class. The kings and lords lived in castles and were attended to by their personal servants, called vassals. The soldiers that fought for the king and lords were called knights. When conflict arose, the peasants would leave their fields and villages and come into the safety of the castle walls.

6. Kings ruled by what they believed was their "Divine Right". This meant they believed God made them the King, and their kingdom was passed down through generations.

7. Many fairy tales have their roots in the Middle Ages. When you read about castles and the characters that lived and around them, these stories are being told about this time in history.

8. Castles were built for the lords and kings who lived in them. The bigger and stronger the castle was, the wealthier the person who had it built was. The poor lived in huts made from sticks, straw and mud.

9. The church had a great influence over the people. The peasants believed that the harder they worked, the more of their money they gave to the church, and the more they served the church, the better the after-life would be for them.

10. By the early 1300s, however, Europe suffered from both war and disease. The wars were made much worse by the Black Death, or bubonic plague, which spread along the Silk Road from China to Europe starting in 1328, killing millions of people and causing the collapse of the Mongol Empire. By the 1400s, after the plague, Europe looked very different, and the wars were over, and Middle Ages were coming to an end.

CASTLES

If you want to learn more about the parts of a castle, what they have inside them, and the people that live in a castles, and even make your own paper castle, click on the image below.



01/10/2012 11:28 miprimerzarzablog #. SOCIAL AND NATURAL SCIENCE No hay comentarios. Comentar.

NUMANTIA (NUMANCIA in Spanish)

Numantia is the name of an ancient Celtiberian settlement, whose remains are located 7 km north of the city of Soria, on a hill known as Cerro de la Muela in the municipality of Garray.

Numantia is famous for its role in the Celtiberian Wars. In the year 153 BC Numantia experienced its first serious conflict with Rome. After 20 years of hostilities, in the year 133 BC the Roman Senate gave Scipio Aemilianus Africanus the task of destroying Numantia. He laid siege to the city, erecting a nine kilometre fence supported by towers, moats, impaling rods and so on. After 13 months of siege, the Numantians decided to burn the city and die free rather than live and be slaves.

Read more.

THE ROMAN EMPIRE

 Learn a bit more about the Romans by clicking here.

 

25/09/2012 10:36 miprimerzarzablog #. SOCIAL AND NATURAL SCIENCE No hay comentarios. Comentar.

GEOGRAFÍA

A través de estos mapas interactivos os ofrecemos una amplia gama de recursos educativos para poder conocer la geografía española a todos los niveles de una manera amena.

Pinchad en la imagen para acceder a los juegos.

Esperamos que os guste.

SIMPLE MACHINES

Fancy playing a game on SIMPLE MACHINES while learning a bit more about them?

Click on the picture to start.

Physical and Chemical Properties of Matter

 

Each phase of matter has its own chemical and physical properties.

Phases of Matter

The phases of matter are:

  • Solid – which has a definite shape and volume
  • Liquid – which has a definite volume, but can change shape
  • Gas - the shape and volume of a gas can change

Phase Changes of Matter

There are several ways in which phases of matter can change from one to another:

  • Melting - melting occurs when a substance changes from a solid to a liquid
  • Boiling - boiling is when a substance changes from a liquid to a gas
  • Condensing - condensation is when a gas changes to a liquid
  • Freezing - freezing is when a liquid changes to a solid

Classes of Changes in Matter

The changes that take place in substances may be categorized in two classes:

  • Physical Change – a new substance is not produced and just the physical properties are changed. For example - phase changes, or crushing a can
  • Chemical Change – a new substance is produced with different chemical properties. For example: burning, rusting, and photosynthesis.

Solutions

Sometimes, when two or more substances are combined it results in a solution. Making a solution can produce either a physical or chemical change. When there’s a physical change in a solution, the original substances can be separated from one another. If a chemical change takes place while creating a solution, the original substances cannot be separated from one another.
Physical and Chemical Properties of MatterEach phase of matter has its own chemical and physical properties.

16/05/2012 16:49 miprimerzarzablog #. SOCIAL AND NATURAL SCIENCE No hay comentarios. Comentar.

Changes of matter

Click on the image to see videos and play games related to the States of Matter.

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States of Matter

There are five main states of matter. Solids, liquids, gases, plasmas, and Bose-Einstein condensates are all different states of matter. Each of these states is also known as a phase. Elements and compounds can move from one phase to another phase when special physical forces are present. One example of those forces is temperature. The phase or state of matter can change when the temperature changes. Generally, as the temperature rises, matter moves to a more active state.

Five States of Matter


Phase describes a physical state of matter. The key word to notice is physical. Things only move from one phase to another by physical means. If energy is added (like increasing the temperature or increasing pressure) or if energy is taken away (like freezing something or decreasing pressure) you have created a physical change.

Addition of Energy changes state

One compound or element can move from phase to phase, but still be the same substance. You can see water vapor over a boiling pot of water. That vapor (or gas) can condense and become a drop of water. If you put that drop in the freezer, it would become a solid. No matter what phase it was in, it was always water. It always had the same chemical properties. On the other hand, a chemical change would change the way the water acted, eventually making it not water, but something completely new.

11/05/2012 00:28 miprimerzarzablog #. SOCIAL AND NATURAL SCIENCE No hay comentarios. Comentar.

MATTER WEBQUEST

Do you want to complete this Webquest about Matter?

Click on the image to start.

A COMMENT FROM...

Irene (5ºA) wants to share this information with all of you:

I found information about the state of light and the state of sound. Did you know light could be in a solid state? It’s a type of lightning which uses semiconductor light-emitting diodes (OLED) or polymer light-emitting diodes (PLED) as sources of illumination on rather than electrical filaments, plasma, or gas.
What state of matter does sound travel the fastest? Solids transmit sounds fastest, and farther. The more dense the material is, the better sound could be counducted.
Temperature also affects the speed of sound.
(I know this is a little bit complicated, but I love Science!)

Thank you Irene!!! Guiño

Matter is the Stuff Around You

Mixtures on Earth Matter is everything around you. Matter is anything made of atoms and molecules. Matter is anything that has a mass. Matter is also related to light and electromagnetic radiation. Even though matter can be found all over the universe, you usually find it in just a few forms. As of 1995, scientists have identified five states of matter. They may discover one more by the time you get old.

You should know about solids, liquids, gases, plasmas, and a new one called Bose-Einstein condensates. The first four have been around a long time. The scientists who worked with the Bose-Einstein condensate received a Nobel Prize for their work in 1995. But what makes a state of matter? It’s about the physical state of molecules and atoms.

Do you want to know more about matter? Click here.

19/04/2012 19:51 miprimerzarzablog #. SOCIAL AND NATURAL SCIENCE No hay comentarios. Comentar.

What makes a mammal a mammal, or a bird a bird? Click on the buttons to learn more!

rabbit, mammal
turtle, reptile
bird

 


 

Learn more about special topics that separate the different kinds of animals!

 


  



 




African River game   African Grassland Animal game

 

  American Forest Game     

 

 

                   

Test yourself with the Classification Game!

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