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Conditional Tenses

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Conditional tenses describe the result of something that might happen (in the present or future) or might have happened but didn’t (in the past).

                 

1st Conditional Tenses

IF + SUBJECT + PRESENT SIMPLE, SUBJECT + WILL + INFINITIVE

SUBJECT + WILL + INFINITIVE + IF + SUBJECT + PRESENT SIMPLE

We use the First Conditional to talk about future events that are likely to happen.

  • If we take John, he’ll be really pleased.
  • If you give me some money, I’ll pay you back tomorrow.
  • If they tell us they want it, we’ll have to give it to them.
  • If Mary comes, she’ll want to drive.  
The ’if’ clause can be used with different present forms.
  • If I go to New York again, I’ll buy you a souvenir from the Empire State Building.
  • If he’s feeling better, he’ll come.
  • If she hasn’t heard the bad news yet, I’ll tell her.

The "future clause" can contain ’going to’ or the future perfect as well as ’will’.

  • If I see him, I’m going to tell him exactly how angry I am.
  • If we don’t get the contract, we’ll have wasted a lot of time and money.

The "future clause" can also contain other modal verbs such as ’can’ and ’must’.

  • If you go to New York, you must have the cheesecake in Lindy’s.
  • If he comes, you can get a lift home with him.

exercise 1

exercise 2

exercise 3

exercise 4

exercise 5

 

2nd Conditional

IF + SUBJECT + PAST SIMPLE, SUBJECT + WOULD+ INFINITIVE

SUBJECT + WOULD + INFINITIVE + IF + SUBJECT + PAST SIMPLE

The Second Conditional is used to talk about ’impossible’ situations.

  • If we were in London today, we would be able to go to the concert in Hyde Park.
  • If I had millions dollars, I’d give a lot to charity.
  • If there were no hungry people in this world, it would be a much better place.
  • If everyone had clean water to drink, there would be a lot less disease.

After I / he/ she /it we often use the subjunctive form ’were’ and not ’was’. (Some people think that ’were’ is the only ’correct’ form but other people think ’was’ is equally ’correct’ .)

  • If she were happy in her job, she wouldn’t be looking for another one.
  • If I lived in Japan, I’d have sushi every day.
  • If they were to enter our market, we’d have big problems.

The form ’If I were you’ is often used to give advice.

  • If I were you, I’d look for a new place to live.
  • If I were you, I’d go back to school and get more qualifications.

The Second Conditional is also used to talk about ’unlikely’ situations.

  • If I went to China, I’d visit the Great Wall.
  • If I was the President, I’d reduce taxes.
  • If you were in my position, you’d understand.

The choice between the first and the second conditional is often a question of the speaker’s attitude rather than of facts. Compare these examples. Otto thinks these things are possible, Peter doesn’t.

  • Otto – If I win the lottery, I’ll buy a big house. (1st conditional)
  • Peter – If I won the lottery, I’d buy a big house. (2nd conditional)
  • Otto – If I get promoted, I’ll throw a big party. (1st conditional)
  • Peter – If I got promoted, I’d throw a big party. (2nd conditional)
  • Otto – If my team win the Cup, I’ll buy champagne for everybody. (1st conditional)
  • Peter – If my team won the Cup, I’d buy champagne for everybody. (2nd conditional)

The ’If clause’ can contain the past simple or the past continuous.

  • If I was still working in Brighton, I would commute by train.
  • If she were coming, she would be here by now.
  • If they were thinking of selling, I would want to buy.

The main clause can contain ’would’ ’could’ or ’might.

  • If I had the chance to do it again, I would do it differently.
  • If we met up for lunch, we could go to that new restaurant.
  • If I spoke to him directly, I might be able to persuade him.

Sometimes the ’if clause’ is implied rather than spoken.

  • What would I do without you? ("if you weren’t here")
  • Where would I get one at this time of night? ("if I wanted one")
  • He wouldn’t agree. ("if I asked him")

exercise 1

exercise 2

exercise 3

exercise 4

exercise 5

exercise 6


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Writing Task # 3

Friday, 4th November 2016

Create a story (100 words) about a witch, a cat and a haunted house.

Your story should begin with: This is the witches first Halloween...            

 

                                           

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Writing Task # 2

Friday, 21st October 2016

Write a story (100 words) about a time you went to a museum (if you have never visited a museum, make up a story).

In your story you have to include vocabulary words from Unit 1: paintings, background, sculptures, art gallery, portraits, mural and landscapes.            

 

                                           

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Writing Task # 1

Friday, 15th October 2016

Correspondence

Write an email to a friend telling him/her about your summer.

Include: * Where did you go?             

             * What did you do?             

             * Who were you with?       

(Write 5 Past Simple sentences)

                                           

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Writing Task 11

Friday, 15th April 2016

Correspondence

Last week you played a new sport for the first time. Write a letter to your English penfriend about the sport. Say what equipment is necessary and tell him what you like and dislike about the sport. (100 words approximately)

                                           

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Writing Task 10

Friday, 8th April 2016

Factual Writing

An older relative recently bought a mobile phone but cannot use it very well. Write some simple instructions for your relative telling her how to send an SMS message. (100 words approximately)

                                           

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Writing Task 9

Friday, 1st April 2016

Correspondence

Your Irish friend is going to visit your area next month, but cannot decide where to go. Write an email to your friend comparing two different places you know well. Say which one is best for your friend.

                                           

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Writing Task 8

Friday, 11th March 2016

Descriptive / Creative writing

Write a description (true or imaginary) for a writing competition about a time when you helped a friend in trouble. Describe what you did to help and explain what you have learnt from the experience.

                                           

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Writing Task 7

Friday, 4th March 2016

Descriptive / Creative writing

Write your diary (true or imaginary) for a day when you had the opportunity to  do something you have always wanted to do.

                                           

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Writing Task 6

Friday, 26th February 2016

Creative writing

Write a Halloween story in which there is a cat, a monster with a problem and a haunted house. Have also someone speaking!!

                                           

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Writing Task 5

Friday, 19th February 2016

Factual writing

Write an article for a music magazine about a popular band. Say how long they have been famous, explain why a lot of people like them and give your opinion of their songs.

                                           

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KET for Schools Speaking Part

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PASSIVE VOICE

Use of Passive

Passive voice is used when the focus is on the action. It is not important or not known, however, who or what is performing the action.

Example: My bike was stolen.

In the example above, the focus is on the fact that my bike was stolen. I do not know, however, who did it.

Sometimes a statement in passive is more polite than active voice, as the following example shows:

Example: A mistake was made.

In this case, I focus on the fact that a mistake was made, but I do not blame anyone (e.g. You have made a mistake.).

Form of Passive

Subject + finite form of to be + Past Participle (3rd column of irregular verbs)

Example: A letter was written.

When rewriting active sentences in passive voice, note the following:

  • the object of the active sentence becomes the subject of the passive sentence
  • the finite form of the verb is changed (to be + past participle)
  • the subject of the active sentence becomes the object of the passive sentence (or is dropped)

Examples of Passive 

TenseSubjectVerbObject
Simple PresentActive:Ritawritesa letter.
Passive:A letteris writtenby Rita.
Simple PastActive:Ritawrotea letter.
Passive:A letterwas writtenby Rita.
Present PerfectActive:Ritahas writtena letter.
Passive:A letterhas been writtenby Rita.
Future IActive:Ritawill writea letter.
Passive:A letterwill be writtenby Rita.
HilfsverbenActive:Ritacan writea letter.
Passive:A lettercan be writtenby Rita.

Examples of Passive 

TenseSubjectVerbObject
Present ProgressiveActive:Ritais writinga letter.
Passive:A letteris being writtenby Rita.
Past ProgressiveActive:Ritawas writinga letter.
Passive:A letterwas being writtenby Rita.
Past PerfectActive:Ritahad writtena letter.
Passive:A letterhad been writtenby Rita.
Future IIActive:Ritawill have writtena letter.
Passive:A letterwill have been writtenby Rita.
Conditional IActive:Ritawould writea letter.
Passive:A letterwould be writtenby Rita.
Conditional IIActive:Ritawould have writtena letter.
Passive:A letterwould have been writtenby Rita.

Personal and Impersonal Passive

Personal Passive simply means that the object of the active sentence becomes the subject of the passive sentence. So every verb that needs an object (transitive verb) can form a personal passive.

Example: They build houses. – Houses are built.

Verbs without an object (intransitive verb) normally cannot form a personal passive sentence (as there is no object that can become the subject of the passive sentence). If you want to use an intransitive verb in passive voice, you need an impersonal construction – therefore this passive is called Impersonal Passive.

Example: he says – it is said

Impersonal Passive is not as common in English as in some other languages (e.g. German, Latin). In English, Impersonal Passive is only possible with verbs of perception (e. g. say, think, know).

Example: They say that women live longer than men. – It is said that women live longer than men.

Although Impersonal Passive is possible here, Personal Passive is more common.

Example: They say that women live longer than men. – Women are said to live longer than men.

The subject of the subordinate clause (women) goes to the beginning of the sentence; the verb of perception is put into passive voice. The rest of the sentence is added using an infinitive construction with ’to’ (certain auxiliary verbs and that are dropped).

Sometimes the term Personal Passive is used in English lessons if the indirect object of an active sentence is to become the subject of the passive sentence.

Exercises

Exercises on Passive (Form)

Exercises on Passive (Active → Passive)

Exercises on Passive (Active or Passive)

Tests on Passive

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Writing Task 4

Friday, 12th February 2016

Correspondence

An American film company is making a film in your area next month and they are looking for extras. Write a letter to the film company explaining why you want to be an extra and saying why you might be suitable. Ask for more information about the film.

                                           

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Writing Task 3

Friday, 5th February 2016

Correspondence

You have just won a large sum of money in a lottery. Write an email to your best friend to tell him or her the good news. Explain how you are planning to spend the money and ask your friend what he / she thinks of your ideas.

                                           

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Writing Task 2

Friday, 29th January 2016

Write a short story (approximately 150 words). In your story there should be a cat, a party, and a bus.

                                           

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Writing Task 1

Friday, 22nd January 2016

Yesterday something important happened to you or to your family.

Write your diary for that day (approximately 75 words) saying:

     i)     what happened

     ii)    how important it was

     iii)   how you felt about it.

                                           

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Cambridge Examinations: Key for Schools & Preliminary for Schools

A great first step in learning English 

Cambridge English: Key for Schools, also known as Key English Test (KET) for Schools, shows that a student can use simple, everyday written and spoken English. 

Cambridge English: Key for Schools is a basic level qualification.

Why take the exam?

Every year, thousands of students take Cambridge English: Key for Schools to show they can use everyday written and spoken English.

Download Cambridge English: Key for Schools leaflet (PDF 324Kb) 

Download information for candidates (PDF 1.38Mb)

 

Practical English for everyday use

Cambridge English: Preliminary for Schools, also known as Preliminary English Test (PET) for Schools, shows that a student can understand and communicate using everyday written and spoken English.

Cambridge English: Preliminary for Schools is an intermediate level qualification.

Why take the exam?

Every year, thousands of students take Cambridge English: Preliminary for Schools to show they can use English to communicate for everyday purposes.


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Present Perfect with FOR, SINCE, YET, JUST, ALREADY and BEFORE

Present Perfect + for and since

Using the present perfect, we can define a period of time before now by considering its duration, with for + a period of time, or by considering its starting point, with since + a point in time.

For + a period of time

  • for six years, for a week, for a month, for hours, for two hours.
  • I have worked here for five years.

Since + a point in time

  • since this morning, since last week, since yesterday,
  • since I was a child, since Wednesday, since 2 o’clock.
  • I have worked here since 1990.

present perfect with for

  • She has lived here for twenty years.
  • We have taught at this school for a long time.
  • Alice has been married for three months.
  • They have been at the hotel for a week.

present perfect with since

  • She has lived here since 1980.
  • We have taught at this school since 1965
  • Alice has been married since March 2nd.
  • They have been at the hotel since last Tuesday.

 

Present perfect + just, before, already and yet

PRESENT PERFECT + just and before

Just

indicates that the action has happened in the very recent past and it is completed, e.g.
a. I’ve just lost my car keys and can’t leave for work.
b. Don’t call John, I’ve just done it.

Position

Just can be placed before the main verb (past participle).

Before

indicates the existence of past events, and emphasizing the pastness of the event with a redundant before e.g.
a. She has seen the movie before.
b. I have met her before the summer.

Position

Before is usually placed at the end of the sentence.

PRESENT PERFECT + already and yet

refers to an action that has happened at an unspecified time before now. It suggests that there is no need for repetition, e.g.
a. I’ve already drunk three coffees this morning. (and you’re offering me another one!)
b. Don’t write to John, I’ve already done it.

It is also used in questions:

  • Have you already written to John?
  • Has she finished her homework already?

Position

already can be placed before the main verb (past participle) or at the end of the sentence:

  • I have already been to Tokyo.
  • I have been to Tokyo already.

Yet

is used in negative statements and questions, to mean (not) in the period of time between before now and now, (not) up to and including the present. e.g.

  • Have you met Judy yet?
  • I haven’t visited the Tate Gallery yet.
  • Has he arrived yet?
  • They haven’t eaten yet.

Position

Yet is usually placed at the end of the sentence.

Exercises on Present Perfect

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2nd Conditional

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1st Conditional

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  • Conditional tenses describe the result of something that might happen (in the present or future) or might have happened but didn’t (in the past).

 

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20151117111634-simplepastandcontinuous-sppc-contrast.png
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Past Continuous

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FORM

[was/were + verb-ING]

Examples:

  • You were studying when she called.
  • Were you studying when she called?
  • You were not studying when she called.

USE 1 Interrupted Action in the Past

Use the Past Continuous to indicate that a longer action in the past was interrupted. The interruption is usually a shorter action in the Simple Past. Remember this can be a real interruption or just an interruption in time.

Examples:

  • was watching TV when she called.
  • When the phone rang, she was writing a letter.
  • While we were having the picnic, it started to rain.
  • What were you doing when the earthquake started?
  • was listening to my iPod, so I didn’t hear the fire alarm.
  • You were not listening to me when I told you to turn the oven off.
  • While John was sleeping last night, someone stole his car.
  • Sammy was waiting for us when we got off the plane.
  • While I was writing the email, the computer suddenly went off.
  • A: What were you doing when you broke your leg?
    B: I was snowboarding.

USE 2 Specific Time as an Interruption

In USE 1, described above, the Past Continuous is interrupted by a shorter action in the Simple Past. However, you can also use a specific time as an interruption.

Examples:

  • Last night at 6 PM, I was eating dinner.
  • At midnight, we were still driving through the desert.
  • Yesterday at this time, I was sitting at my desk at work.

IMPORTANT

In the Simple Past, a specific time is used to show when an action began or finished. In the Past Continuous, a specific time only interrupts the action.

Examples:

  • Last night at 6 PM, I ate dinner.
    I started eating at 6 PM.
  • Last night at 6 PM, I was eating dinner.
    I started earlier; and at 6 PM, I was in the process of eating dinner.

USE 3 Parallel Actions

When you use the Past Continuous with two actions in the same sentence, it expresses the idea that both actions were happening at the same time. The actions are parallel.

Examples:

  • was studying while he was making dinner.
  • While Ellen was reading, Tim was watching television.
  • Were you listening while he was talking?
  • wasn’t paying attention while I was writing the letter, so I made several mistakes.
  • What were you doing while you were waiting?
  • Thomas wasn’t working, and I wasn’t working either.
  • They were eating dinner, discussing their plans, and having a good time.

USE 4 Atmosphere

In English, we often use a series of parallel actions to describe the atmosphere at a particular time in the past.

Example:

  • When I walked into the office, several people were busily typing, some were talking on the phones, the boss was yelling directions, and customers were waiting to be helped. One customer was yelling at a secretary and waving his hands. Others were complaining to each other about the bad service.

USE 5 Repetition and Irritation with "Always"

The Past Continuous with words such as "always" or "constantly" expresses the idea that something irritating or shocking often happened in the past. The concept is very similar to the expression "used to" but with negative emotion. Remember to put the words "always" or "constantly" between "be" and "verb+ing."

Examples:

  • She was always coming to class late.
  • He was constantly talking. He annoyed everyone.
  • I didn’t like them because they were always complaining.

REMEMBER Non-Continuous Verbs / Mixed Verbs

It is important to remember that Non-Continuous Verbs cannot be used in any continuous tenses. Also, certain non-continuous meanings for Mixed Verbs cannot be used in continuous tenses. Instead of using Past Continuous with these verbs, you must use Simple Past.

Examples:

  • Jane was being at my house when you arrived. Not Correct
  • Jane was at my house when you arrived. Correct

ADVERB PLACEMENT

The examples below show the placement for grammar adverbs such as: always, only, never, ever, still, just, etc.

Examples:

  • You were just studying when she called.
  • Were you just studying when she called?

ACTIVE / PASSIVE

Examples:

  • The salesman was helping the customer when the thief came into the store. Active
  • The customer was being helped by the salesman when the thief came into the store. Passive

 

EXERCISES AND RELATED TOPICS

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Past Simple

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FORM

[VERB+ed] or irregular verbs

Examples:

  • You called Debbie.
  • Did you call Debbie?
  • You did not call Debbie.

USE 1 Completed Action in the Past

Use the Simple Past to express the idea that an action started and finished at a specific time in the past. Sometimes, the speaker may not actually mention the specific time, but they do have one specific time in mind.

Examples:

  • saw a movie yesterday.
  • didn't see a play yesterday.
  • Last year, I traveled to Japan.
  • Last year, I didn't travel to Korea.
  • Did you have dinner last night?
  • She washed her car.
  • He didn't wash his car.

USE 2 A Series of Completed Actions

We use the Simple Past to list a series of completed actions in the past. These actions happen 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th, and so on.

Examples:

  • finished work, walked to the beach, and found a nice place to swim.
  • He arrived from the airport at 8:00, checked into the hotel at 9:00, and met the others at 10:00.
  • Did you add flour, pour in the milk, and then add the eggs?

USE 3 Duration in Past

The Simple Past can be used with a duration which starts and stops in the past. A duration is a longer action often indicated by expressions such as: for two years, for five minutes, all day, all year, etc.

Examples:

  • lived in Brazil for two years.
  • Shauna studied Japanese for five years.
  • They sat at the beach all day.
  • They did not stay at the party the entire time.
  • We talked on the phone for thirty minutes.
  • A: How long did you wait for them?
    B: We waited for one hour.

USE 4 Habits in the Past

The Simple Past can also be used to describe a habit which stopped in the past. It can have the same meaning as "used to." To make it clear that we are talking about a habit, we often add expressions such as: always, often, usually, never, when I was a child, when I was younger, etc.

Examples:

  • studied French when I was a child.
  • He played the violin.
  • He didn't play the piano.
  • Did you play a musical instrument when you were a kid?
  • She worked at the movie theater after school.
  • They never went to school, they always skipped class.

ADVERB PLACEMENT

The examples below show the placement for grammar adverbs such as: always, only, never, ever, still, just, etc.

Examples:

  • You just called Debbie.
  • Did you just call Debbie?

ACTIVE / PASSIVE

Examples:

  • Tom repaired the car. Active
  • The car was repaired by Tom. Passive

 

EXERCISES AND RELATED TOPICS

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Present Continuous

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FORM

[am/is/are + verb-ING]

Examples:

  • You are watching TV.
  • Are you watching TV?
  • You are not watching TV.

 

USE 1 Now

Use the Present Continuous with Normal Verbs to express the idea that something is happening now, at this very moment. It can also be used to show that something is not happening now.

Examples:

  • You are learning English now.
  • You are not swimming now.
  • Are you sleeping?
  • am sitting.
  • am not standing.
  • Is he sitting or standing?
  • They are reading their books.
  • They are not watching television.
  • What are you doing?
  • Why aren’t you doing your homework?

USE 2 Longer Actions in Progress Now

In English, "now" can mean: this second, today, this month, this year, this century, and so on. Sometimes, we use the Present Continuous to say that we are in the process of doing a longer action which is in progress; however, we might not be doing it at this exact second.

Examples: (All of these sentences can be said while eating dinner in a restaurant.)

  • am studying to become a doctor.
  • am not studying to become a dentist.
  • am reading the book Tom Sawyer.
  • am not reading any books right now.
  • Are you working on any special projects at work?
  • Aren’t you teaching at the university now?

USE 3 Near Future

Sometimes, speakers use the Present Continuous to indicate that something will or will not happen in the near future.

Examples:

  • am meeting some friends after work.
  • am not going to the party tonight.
  • Is he visiting his parents next weekend?
  • Isn’t he coming with us tonight?

USE 4 Repetition and Irritation with "Always"

The Present Continuous with words such as "always" or "constantly" expresses the idea that something irritating or shocking often happens. Notice that the meaning is like Simple Present, but with negative emotion. Remember to put the words "always" or "constantly" between "be" and "verb+ing."

Examples:

  • She is always coming to class late.
  • He is constantly talking. I wish he would shut up.
  • I don’t like them because they are always complaining.

REMEMBER Non-Continuous Verbs/ Mixed Verbs

It is important to remember that Non-Continuous Verbs cannot be used in any continuous tenses. Also, certain non-continuous meanings for Mixed Verbs cannot be used in continuous tenses. Instead of using Present Continuous with these verbs, you must use Simple Present.

Examples:

  • She is loving this chocolate ice cream. Not Correct
  • She loves this chocolate ice cream. Correct

ADVERB PLACEMENT

The examples below show the placement for grammar adverbs such as: always, only, never, ever, still, just, etc.

Examples:

  • You are still watching TV.
  • Are you still watching TV?

ACTIVE / PASSIVE

Examples:

  • Right now, Tom is writing the letter. Active
  • Right now, the letter is being written by Tom. Passive

 

EXERCISES AND RELATED TOPICS

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Present Simple

20151117111208-ems-present-simple.jpg

FORM

[VERB] + s/es in third person

Examples:

  • You speak English.
  • Do you speak English?
  • You do not speak English.

USE 1 Repeated Actions

Use the Simple Present to express the idea that an action is repeated or usual. The action can be a habit, a hobby, a daily event, a scheduled event or something that often happens. It can also be something a person often forgets or usually does not do.

Examples:

  • play tennis.
  • She does not play tennis.
  • Does he play tennis?
  • The train leaves every morning at 8 AM.
  • The train does not leave at 9 AM.
  • When does the train usually leave?
  • She always forgets her purse.
  • He never forgets his wallet.
  • Every twelve months, the Earth circles the Sun.
  • Does the Sun circle the Earth?

USE 2 Facts or Generalizations

The Simple Present can also indicate the speaker believes that a fact was true before, is true now, and will be true in the future. It is not important if the speaker is correct about the fact. It is also used to make generalizations about people or things.

Examples:

  • Cats like milk.
  • Birds do not like milk.
  • Do pigs like milk?
  • California is in America.
  • California is not in the United Kingdom.
  • Windows are made of glass.
  • Windows are not made of wood.
  • New York is a small city. It is not important that this fact is untrue.

USE 3 Scheduled Events in the Near Future

Speakers occasionally use Simple Present to talk about scheduled events in the near future. This is most commonly done when talking about public transportation, but it can be used with other scheduled events as well.

Examples:

  • The train leaves tonight at 6 PM.
  • The bus does not arrive at 11 AM, it arrives at 11 PM.
  • When do we board the plane?
  • The party starts at 8 o’clock.
  • When does class begin tomorrow?

USE 4 Now (Non-Continuous Verbs)

Speakers sometimes use the Simple Present to express the idea that an action is happening or is not happening now. This can only be done with Non-Continuous Verbs and certain Mixed Verbs.

Examples:

  • am here now.
  • She is not here now.
  • He needs help right now.
  • He does not need help now.
  • He has his passport in his hand.
  • Do you have your passport with you?

ADVERB PLACEMENT

The examples below show the placement for grammar adverbs such as: always, only, never, ever, still, just, etc.

Examples:

  • You only speak English.
  • Do you only speak English?

ACTIVE / PASSIVE

Examples:

  • Once a week, Tom cleans the car. Active
  • Once a week, the car is cleaned by Tom. Passive

 

EXERCISES AND RELATED TOPICS


17/11/2015 11:12 miprimerzarzablog #. ENGLISH No hay comentarios. Comentar.

KET and PET online practice

Do you want to do more online practice?

KET or PET for schools?

Click on the picture and choose the appropriate level to do lots of extra practice online.

                                            

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PASSIVE VOICE

Use of Passive

Passive voice is used when the focus is on the action. It is not important or not known, however, who or what is performing the action.

Example: My bike was stolen.

In the example above, the focus is on the fact that my bike was stolen. I do not know, however, who did it.

Sometimes a statement in passive is more polite than active voice, as the following example shows:

Example: A mistake was made.

In this case, I focus on the fact that a mistake was made, but I do not blame anyone (e.g. You have made a mistake.).

Form of Passive

Subject + finite form of to be + Past Participle (3rd column of irregular verbs)

Example: A letter was written.

When rewriting active sentences in passive voice, note the following:

  • the object of the active sentence becomes the subject of the passive sentence
  • the finite form of the verb is changed (to be + past participle)
  • the subject of the active sentence becomes the object of the passive sentence (or is dropped)

Examples of Passive Level 2

TenseSubjectVerbObject
Simple PresentActive:Ritawritesa letter.
Passive:A letteris writtenby Rita.
Simple PastActive:Ritawrotea letter.
Passive:A letterwas writtenby Rita.
Present PerfectActive:Ritahas writtena letter.
Passive:A letterhas been writtenby Rita.
Future IActive:Ritawill writea letter.
Passive:A letterwill be writtenby Rita.
HilfsverbenActive:Ritacan writea letter.
Passive:A lettercan be writtenby Rita.

Examples of Passive Level 4

TenseSubjectVerbObject
Present ProgressiveActive:Ritais writinga letter.
Passive:A letteris being writtenby Rita.
Past ProgressiveActive:Ritawas writinga letter.
Passive:A letterwas being writtenby Rita.
Past PerfectActive:Ritahad writtena letter.
Passive:A letterhad been writtenby Rita.
Future IIActive:Ritawill have writtena letter.
Passive:A letterwill have been writtenby Rita.
Conditional IActive:Ritawould writea letter.
Passive:A letterwould be writtenby Rita.
Conditional IIActive:Ritawould have writtena letter.
Passive:A letterwould have been writtenby Rita.

Passive Sentences with Two Objects Level 3

Rewriting an active sentence with two objects in passive voice means that one of the two objects becomes the subject, the other one remains an object. Which object to transform into a subject depends on what you want to put the focus on.

 SubjectVerbObject 1Object 2
Active:Ritawrotea letterto me.
Passive:A letterwas writtento meby Rita.
Passive:Iwas writtena letterby Rita.

 

As you can see in the examples, adding by Rita does not sound very elegant. Thats why it is usually dropped.

Personal and Impersonal Passive

Personal Passive simply means that the object of the active sentence becomes the subject of the passive sentence. So every verb that needs an object (transitive verb) can form a personal passive.

Example: They build houses. – Houses are built.

Verbs without an object (intransitive verb) normally cannot form a personal passive sentence (as there is no object that can become the subject of the passive sentence). If you want to use an intransitive verb in passive voice, you need an impersonal construction – therefore this passive is called Impersonal Passive.

Example: he says – it is said

Impersonal Passive is not as common in English as in some other languages (e.g. German, Latin). In English, Impersonal Passive is only possible with verbs of perception (e. g. say, think, know).

Example: They say that women live longer than men. – It is said that women live longer than men.

Although Impersonal Passive is possible here, Personal Passive is more common.

Example: They say that women live longer than men. – Women are said to live longer than men.

The subject of the subordinate clause (women) goes to the beginning of the sentence; the verb of perception is put into passive voice. The rest of the sentence is added using an infinitive construction with ’to’ (certain auxiliary verbs and that are dropped).

Sometimes the term Personal Passive is used in English lessons if the indirect object of an active sentence is to become the subject of the passive sentence.

Exercises

Exercises on Passive (Form)

Exercises on Passive (Active → Passive)

Exercises on Passive (Active or Passive)

Tests on Passive

12/01/2015 13:32 miprimerzarzablog #. ENGLISH Hay 2 comentarios.

Writing Task 4

Friday, 14th November 2014

Correspondence

An American film company is making a film in your area next month and they are looking for extras. Write a letter to the film company explaining why you want to be an extra and saying why you might be suitable. Ask for more information about the film.

                                           

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Writing Task 3

Friday, 7th November 2014

Correspondence

You have just won a large sum of money in a lottery. Write an email to your best friend to tell him or her the good news. Explain how you are planning to spend the money and ask your friend what he / she thinks of your ideas.

                                           

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TONGUE TWISTER

20141105135751-indice.jpg
She sells sea shells

She sells sea shells on the sea shore;
The shells that she sells are sea shells I’m sure.
So if she sells sea shells on the sea shore,
I’m sure that the shells are sea shore shells.
 
05/11/2014 13:57 miprimerzarzablog #. ENGLISH Hay 6 comentarios.

QUESTION TAGS

We use tags in spoken English but not in formal written English.

They are not really questions but are a way of asking the other person to make a comment and so keep the conversation open.

Making a tag is very mechanical. To make a tag, use the first auxiliary. If there is no auxiliary, use do, does or did. With a positive sentence, make a negative tag and with a negative sentence, make a positive tag.

  • It’s beautiful, isn’t it?
  • He has been, hasn’t he?
  • You can, can’t you?
  • It must be, mustn’t it?
  • You know him, don’t you?
  • He finished it, didn’t he?
  • He will come, won’t he?
  • It isn’t very good, is it?
  • It hasn’t rained, has it?
  • It can’t be, can it?
  • Jenny doesn’t know James, does she?
  • They didn’t leave, did they?
  • He won’t do it, will he?

Notice these:

  • There isn’t an ATM here, is there?
  • Let’s have a cup of coffee, shall we?

To reply, use the same auxiliary:

  • It’s beautiful, isn’t it? ~ Yes, it is. I think it’s fabulous.
  • It isn’t very good, is it? ~ No, it isn’t. In fact, it’s terrible.
Although, the rules are very simple and mechanical, in order to use them easily in conversation, they have to be automatic. So you need to hear and practice them very often.
28/05/2014 13:50 miprimerzarzablog #. ENGLISH Hay 1 comentario.

1st conditional

IF + SUBJECT + PRESENT SIMPLE, SUBJECT + WILL + INFINITIVE

SUBJECT + WILL + INFINITIVE + IF + SUBJECT + PRESENT SIMPLE

We use the First Conditional to talk about future events that are likely to happen.

  • If we take John, he’ll be really pleased.
  • If you give me some money, I’ll pay you back tomorrow.
  • If they tell us they want it, we’ll have to give it to them.
  • If Mary comes, she’ll want to drive. 
The ’if’ clause can be used with different present forms.
  • If I go to New York again, I’ll buy you a souvenir from the Empire State Building.
  • If he’s feeling better, he’ll come.
  • If she hasn’t heard the bad news yet, I’ll tell her.

The "future clause" can contain ’going to’ or the future perfect as well as ’will’.

  • If I see him, I’m going to tell him exactly how angry I am.
  • If we don’t get the contract, we’ll have wasted a lot of time and money.

The "future clause" can also contain other modal verbs such as ’can’ and ’must’.

  • If you go to New York, you must have the cheesecake in Lindy’s.
  • If he comes, you can get a lift home with him.

exercise 1

exercise 2

exercise 3

exercise 4

exercise 5

23/04/2014 09:24 miprimerzarzablog #. ENGLISH No hay comentarios. Comentar.

IF YOU ....

 

Don’t forget to write a story similar to these ones, starting: 

"If you give a caterpillar a chocolate bar" (5ºA)

"If you give a snake a microphone"(5ºB)

"If you give a fish a bow tie" (5ºC)

Do not forget to use the first conditional to make your sentences.

Be creative!

Be original!

And have fun!!

22/04/2014 13:14 miprimerzarzablog #. ENGLISH No hay comentarios. Comentar.

GOING TO

Use

1) planned actions in the future

We are going to sing  at the party.


2) You are certain that sth. is going to happen in the future.

Look at that car! It is going to crash into the yellow one.


Form

to be (am, are, is) + going to + infinitive


Affirmative sentences:

am going to play handball.
I’m going to play handball.
You are going to play handball.
You’re going to play handball.

Negative sentences:

am not going to play handball.
I’m not going to play handball.
You are not going to play handball.
You’re not going to play handball.
You aren’t going to play handball.

Questions:

Am I going to play handball?

Are you going to play handball?

 

ATTENTION!!

Do not mix up with the Present Continuous!

going to-futurePresent Continuous
He’s going to read the book.
He’s reading the book.

 

21/02/2014 11:17 miprimerzarzablog #. ENGLISH No hay comentarios. Comentar.

Writing Task

THE ADVENTURES OF HUCKLEBERRY FINN

What is your favourite part of the book?

 

Click on the picture to learn a bit more about the book.


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FUTURE

Simple Future

Simple Future has two different forms in English: "will" and "be going to." Although the two forms can sometimes be used interchangeably, they often express two very different meanings. These different meanings might seem too abstract at first, but with time and practice, the differences will become clear. Both "will" and "be going to" refer to a specific time in the future.

FORM Will

[will + verb]

Examples:

  • You will help him later.
  • Will you help him later?
  • You will not help him later.

FORM Be Going To

[am/is/are + going to + verb]

Examples:

  • You are going to meet Jane tonight.
  • Are you going to meet Jane tonight?
  • You are not going to meet Jane tonight.

Complete List of Simple Future Forms

USE 1 "Will" to Express a Voluntary Action

"Will" often suggests that a speaker will do something voluntarily. A voluntary action is one the speaker offers to do for someone else. Often, we use "will" to respond to someone else’s complaint or request for help. We also use "will" when we request that someone help us or volunteer to do something for us. Similarly, we use "will not" or "won’t" when we refuse to voluntarily do something.

Examples:

  • will send you the information when I get it.
  • will translate the email, so Mr. Smith can read it.
  • Will you help me move this heavy table?
  • Will you make dinner?
  • will not do your homework for you.
  • won’t do all the housework myself!
  • A: I’m really hungry.
    B: I’ll make some sandwiches.
  • A: I’m so tired. I’m about to fall asleep.
    B: I’ll get you some coffee.
  • A: The phone is ringing.
    B: I’ll get it.

USE 2 "Will" to Express a Promise

"Will" is usually used in promises.

Examples:

  • will call you when I arrive.
  • If I am elected President of the United States, I will make sure everyone has access to inexpensive health insurance.
  • I promise I will not tell him about the surprise party.
  • Don’t worry, I’ll be careful.
  • won’t tell anyone your secret.

USE 3 "Be going to" to Express a Plan

"Be going to" expresses that something is a plan. It expresses the idea that a person intends to do something in the future. It does not matter whether the plan is realistic or not.

Examples:

  • He is going to spend his vacation in Hawaii.
  • She is not going to spend her vacation in Hawaii.
  • A: When are we going to meet each other tonight?
    B: We are going to meet at 6 PM.
  • I’m going to be an actor when I grow up.
  • Michelle is going to begin medical school next year.
  • They are going to drive all the way to Alaska.
  • Who are you going to invite to the party?
  • A: Who is going to make John’s birthday cake?
    B: Sue is going to make John’s birthday cake.

USE 4 "Will" or "Be Going to" to Express a Prediction

Both "will" and "be going to" can express the idea of a general prediction about the future. Predictions are guesses about what might happen in the future. In "prediction" sentences, the subject usually has little control over the future and therefore USES 1-3 do not apply. In the following examples, there is no difference in meaning.

Examples:

  • The year 2222 will be a very interesting year.
  • The year 2222 is going to be a very interesting year.
  • John Smith will be the next President.
  • John Smith is going to be the next President.
  • The movie "Zenith" will win several Academy Awards.
  • The movie "Zenith" is going to win several Academy Awards.

Present Continuous

FORM

[am/is/are + present participle]

Examples:

  • You are watching TV.
  • Are you watching TV?
  • You are not watching TV.

Complete List of Present Continuous Forms 

USE 1 Now

Use the Present Continuous to express the idea that something is happening now, at this very moment. It can also be used to show that something is not happening now.

Examples:

  • You are learning English now.
  • You are not swimming now.
  • Are you sleeping?
  • am sitting.
  • am not standing.
  • Is he sitting or standing?
  • They are reading their books.
  • They are not watching television.
  • What are you doing?
  • Why aren’t you doing your homework?

USE 2 Longer Actions in Progress Now

In English, "now" can mean: this second, today, this month, this year, this century, and so on. Sometimes, we use the Present Continuous to say that we are in the process of doing a longer action which is in progress; however, we might not be doing it at this exact second.

Examples: (All of these sentences can be said while eating dinner in a restaurant.)

  • am studying to become a doctor.
  • am not studying to become a dentist.
  • am reading the book Tom Sawyer.
  • am not reading any books right now.
  • Are you working on any special projects at work?
  • Aren’t you teaching at the university now?

USE 3 Near Future

Sometimes, speakers use the Present Continuous to indicate that something will or will not happen in the near future.

Examples:

  • am meeting some friends after work.
  • am not going to the party tonight.
  • Is he visiting his parents next weekend?
  • Isn’t he coming with us tonight?

Exercises

05/02/2014 21:50 miprimerzarzablog #. ENGLISH Hay 1 comentario.

PRESENT PERFECT with FOR, SINCE, JUST, BEFORE, ALREADY, YET

Present Perfect + for and since

Using the present perfect, we can define a period of time before now by considering its duration, with for + a period of time, or by considering its starting point, with since + a point in time.

For + a period of time

  • for six years, for a week, for a month, for hours, for two hours.
  • I have worked here for five years.

Since + a point in time

  • since this morning, since last week, since yesterday,
  • since I was a child, since Wednesday, since 2 o’clock.
  • I have worked here since 1990.

present perfect with for

  • She has lived here for twenty years.
  • We have taught at this school for a long time.
  • Alice has been married for three months.
  • They have been at the hotel for a week.

present perfect with since

  • She has lived here since 1980.
  • We have taught at this school since 1965
  • Alice has been married since March 2nd.
  • They have been at the hotel since last Tuesday.

 

Present perfect + just, before, already and yet

PRESENT PERFECT + just and before

Just

indicates that the action has happened in the very recent past and it is completed, e.g.
a. I’ve just lost my car keys and can’t leave for work.
b. Don’t call John, I’ve just done it.

Position

Just can be placed before the main verb (past participle).

Before

indicates the existence of past events, and emphasizing the pastness of the event with a redundant before e.g.
a. She has seen the movie before.
b. I have met her before the summer.

Position

Before is usually placed at the end of the sentence.

PRESENT PERFECT + already and yet

refers to an action that has happened at an unspecified time before now. It suggests that there is no need for repetition, e.g.
a. I’ve already drunk three coffees this morning. (and you’re offering me another one!)
b. Don’t write to John, I’ve already done it.

It is also used in questions:

  • Have you already written to John?
  • Has she finished her homework already?

Position

already can be placed before the main verb (past participle) or at the end of the sentence:

  • I have already been to Tokyo.
  • I have been to Tokyo already.

Yet

is used in negative statements and questions, to mean (not) in the period of time between before now and now, (not) up to and including the present. e.g.

  • Have you met Judy yet?
  • I haven’t visited the Tate Gallery yet.
  • Has he arrived yet?
  • They haven’t eaten yet.

Position

Yet is usually placed at the end of the sentence.

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SIMPLE PAST vs PRESENT PERFECT

                    20111122225946-pperfect-past.jpg

Simple Past

Present Perfect Simple

Irregular verbs: see 2nd column of irregular verbs

Example: I spoke

Irregular verbs: have/has + 3rd column of irregular verbs

Example:

I / you / we / they have spoken.
he / she / it has spoken
 

Regular verbs: have/has + infinitive + ed

Example: I / you / we / they have worked
he / she / it has worked

 

 

Exceptions when adding ’ed’:

  • when the final letter is e, only add d. Example: love - loved
  • after a short, stressed vowel, the final consonant is doubled. Example: admit - admitted
  • final l is always doubled in British English (not in American English). Example: travel - travelled
  • after a consonant, final y becomes i (but: not after a vowel). Example: worry - worried, but: play - played

Use

In British English, the use of Simple Past and Present Perfect is quite strict. As soon as a time expression in the past is given, you have to use Simple Past. If there are no signal words, you must decide if we just talk about an action in the past or if its consequence in the present is important.

Certain time in the past or just / already /yet?

Do you want to express that an action happened at a certain time in the past (even if it was just a few seconds ago) or that an action has just /already / not yet happened?

Simple PastPresent Perfect Simple

certain time in the past

Example: I phoned Mary 2 minutes ago.

just / already / not yet

Example: I have just phoned Mary.

Certain event in the past or how often so far?

Do you want to express when a certain action took place or whether / how often an action has happened till now?

Simple PastPresent Perfect Simple

certain event in the past

Example: He went to Canada last summer.

whether / how often till now

Example: Have you ever been to Canada? I have been to Canada twice.

Emphasis on action or result?

Do you just want to express what happened in the past? Or do you want to emphasise the result (a past action’s consequence in the present)?

Simple PastPresent Perfect Simple

Emphasis on action

Example:  I bought a new bike. (just telling what I did in the past.)

Emphasis on result

Example: I have bought a new bike. (with this sentence I actually want to express that I have a new bike now.)

Signal Words

Simple Past   
   Present Perfect Simple
  • yesterday
  • ... ago
  • in 1990
  • the other day
  • last ...
  • just
  • already
  • up to now
  • until now / till now
  • ever
  • (not) yet
  • so far
  • lately / recently

Exercises:

Test

                       

05/11/2013 00:37 miprimerzarzablog #. ENGLISH Hay 3 comentarios.

PRESENT PERFECT

Present Perfect Verb Tense

1. Present Perfect - Form

 The present perfect of any verb is composed of two elements : the appropriate form of the auxiliary verb to have (present tense), plus the past participle of the main verb. The past participle of a regular verb is base+ed, e.g. played, arrived, looked

Affirmative

Subject

to have

past participle

She

has

visited

Negative

Subject

to have + not

past participle

She

hasn’t

visited

Interrogative

to have

subject

past participle

Has

she

visited..?

Interrogative negative
to have + notsubjectpast participle
Hasn’tshevisited...?

Example: to walk, present perfect

AffirmativeNegativeInterrogative

I have walked

I haven’t walked

Have I walked?

You have walked

You haven’t walked

Have you walked?

He, she, it has walked

He, she, it hasn’t walked

Has he,she,it walked

We have walked

We haven’t walked

Have we walked?

You have walked

You haven’t walked

Have you walked?

They have walked

They haven’t walked

Have they walked?

2. Present perfect, function

 The Present Perfect is used to indicate a link between the present and the past. The time of the action is before now but not specified, and we are often more interested in the resultthan in the action itself.

BE CAREFUL! There may be a verb tense in your language with a similar form, but the meaning is probably NOT the same.

The Present Perfect is used to describe:

  1. An action or situation that started in the past and continues in the present. Example: I have lived in Bristol since 1984 (= and I still do.)
  2. An action performed during a period that has not yet finished. Example: She has been to the cinema twice this week (= and the week isn’t over yet.)
  3. A repeated action in an unspecified period between the past and now. Example: We have visited Portugal several times.
  4. An action that was completed in the very recent past, (expressed by ’just’). Example: I have just finished my work.
  5. An action when the time is not important. Example: He has read ’War and Peace’(the result of his reading is important)

Note: When we want to give or ask details about when, where, who, we use the simple pastExample: He read ’War and Peace’ last week.

Examples:

1. Actions started in the past and continuing in the present.

  • They haven’t lived here for years.
  • She has worked in the bank for five years.
  • We have had the same car for ten years.
  • Have you played the piano since you were a child?

2. When the time period referred to has not finished.

  • I have worked hard this week.
  • It has rained a lot this year.
  • We haven’t seen her today.

3. Actions repeated in an unspecified period between the past and now.

  • They have seen that film six times.
  • It has happened several times already.
  • She has visited them frequently.
  • We have eaten at that restaurant many times.

4. Actions completed in the very recent past (+just).

  • Have you just finished work?
  • have just eaten.
  • We have just seen her.
  • Has he just left?

5. When the precise time of the action is not important or not known.

  • Someone has eaten my soup!
  • Have you seen ’Gone with the Wind’?
  • She’s studied Japanese, Russian and English.
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WORLD RECORD: Felix Baumgartner

 

Published on Oct 15, 2012

After flying to an altitude of 39,045 meters (128,100 feet) in a helium-filled balloon, Felix Baumgartner completed a record breaking jump for the ages from the edge of space, exactly 65 years after Chuck Yeager first broke the sound barrier flying in an experimental rocket-powered airplane. Felix reached a maximum of speed of 1,342.8 km/h (833mph) through the near vacuum of the stratosphere before being slowed by the atmosphere later during his 4:20 minute long freefall. The 43-year-old Austrian skydiving expert also broke two other world records (highest freefall, highest manned balloon flight), leaving the one for the longest freefall to project mentor Col. Joe Kittinger.

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REPORTED SPEECH

What is reported speech?

Reported speech is when you tell somebody else what you or a person said before.

 

Direct speech vs Reported speech:

Direct speechReported speech
She says: "I like tuna fish."She says that she likes tuna fish.
She said: "I’m visiting Paris next weekend"She said that she was visiting Paris the following weekend.

Different types of sentences

When you use reported speech, you either report:

  • Statements
  • questions
  • requests / commands
  • other types

A. Reporting Statements

When transforming statements, check whether you have to change:

  • pronouns
  • tense
  • place and time expression

1- Pronouns

In reported speech, you often have to change the pronoun depending on who says what.

Example:

She says, “My dad likes roast chicken.” – She says that her dad likes roast chicken.

2- Tenses

  • If the sentence starts in the present, there is no backshift of tenses in Reported speech.
  • If the sentence starts in the past, there is often backshift of tenses in Reported speech.
 Direct speechReported speech
(no backshift)“I write poems.”He says that he writes poems.
(backshift)“I write poems.”
He said that he wrote poems.

No backshift

Do not change the tense if the introductory clause is in a present tense (e. g. He says). Note, however, that you might have to change the form of the present tense verb (3rd person singular).

Example:
He says, “I write poems.” – He says that he writes English.

Backshift

You must change the tense if the introductory clause is in a past tense (e. g. He said).

Example:
He said, “I am happy.” – He said that he was happy.

Examples of the main changes in tense:

Direct SpeechReported Speech
Simple Present
He said: "I am happy."
Simple Past
He said that he was happy.
Present Progressive
He said: "I’m looking for my keys."
Past Progressive
He said that he was looking for his keys.
Simple Past
He said: "I visited New York last year." 
Past Perfect Simple
He said that he had visited New York the previous year.
Present Perfect 
He said: "I’ve lived here for a long time."
Past Perfect 
He said that he had lived there for a long time.
Past Perfect 
He said: "They had finished the work when I arrived."
Past Perfect 
He said that they had finished the work when he had arrived."
Past Progressive
He said: "I was playing football when the accident occurred."
Past Perfect Progressive
He said that he had been playing football when the accident had occurred.
Present Perfect Progressive
He said:"I have been playing football for two hours."
Past Perfect Progressive
He said that he had been playing football for two hours.
Past Perfect Progressive
He said: "I had been reading a newspaper when the light went off."
Past Perfect Progressive
He said that he had been reading a newspaper when the light had gone off.
Future Simple (will+verb)
He said: "I will open the door."
Conditional (would+verb)
He said that he would open the door.
Conditional (would+verb)
He said: "I would buy a castle if I were rich"
Conditional (would+verb)
He said that he would buy a castle if he had been rich.

The verbs could, should, would, might, must, needn’t, ought to, used to do not normally change.
Example:
He said, “She might be right.” – He said that she might be right.

3- Place, demonstratives and time expressions

Place, demonstratives and time expressions change if the context of the reported statement (i.e. the location and/or the period of time) is different from that of the direct speech.

In the following table, you will find the different changes of place; demonstratives and time expressions.

Direct SpeechReported Speech
Time Expressions
todaythat day
nowthen
yesterdaythe day before
… days ago… days before
last weekthe week before
next yearthe following year
tomorrowthe next day / the following day
Place
herethere
Demonstratives
thisthat
thesethose

 

B. Reporting Questions

When transforming questions, check whether you have to change:

  • pronouns
  • place and time expressions
  • tenses (backshift)

Also note that you have to:

  • transform the question into an indirect question
  • use the question word (where, when, what, how) or if / whether
Types of questionsDirect speechReported speech
With question word (what, why, where, how...)"Why don’t you speak English?”He asked me why I didn’t speak English.
Without question word (yes or no questions)“Do you speak English?”He asked me whether / if I spoke English.
  
 

C. Reporting requests / commands

When transforming requests and commands, check whether you have to change:

  • pronouns
  • place and time expressions
Direct speechReported speech
“Nancy,do the exercise.“He told Nancy to do the exercise.
"Nancy, give me your pen, please."He asked Nancy to give him her pen.


Example:

She said, “Sit down." - She asked me to sit down.

She said, "don’t be lazy" - She asked me not to be lazy

For affirmative use to + infinitive (without to)

For negative requests, use not to + infinitive (without to).

  
 

D. Other transformations

  • Expressions of advice with mustshould and ought are usually reported using advise / urge.
    Example:
    “You must read this book.“
    He advised / urged me to read that book.
  • The expression let’s is usually reported using suggest. In this case, there are two possibilities for reported speech: gerund or statement with should.
    Example:
    “Let’s go to the cinema.“=
    1. He suggested going to the cinema.
    2. He suggested that we should go to the cinema.
  
 

Exercises on the reported speech

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3rd Conditional Extra Practice

Try to do these activities to improve your knowledge about 3rd Conditional:

Perfect English Grammar 

English Exercises

Better English

 

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TIPS FOR THE EXAM DAY:

  • Sleep well:
    Go to bed early the day before the exam and get a good night’s sleep.
  • Eat well:
    Have a healthy breakfast and avoid sugary snacks, because they will make you tired later on.

  • Pack your bag carefully:
    You need a sharp pencil and an eraser for the exam. You should also take some spare pencils and a pencil sharpener.

  • Arrive early at the exam centre:
    Leave your house early so you don’t need to worry about being late.

  • Always read the questions:
    Reading the questions will tell you useful information that will help you understand the situations.

  • Make notes:
    It’s OK to write on the question paper. You can underline parts of the reading text, or write things down while you listen.

  • Use your time well:
    If you can not answer a question, move on and come back to it later. You shouldn’t spend all your time on one question. You need to answer as many questions as you can.

  • Check your answers:
    After you finish, look back and check your answers. Make sure you have answered all the questions and check your spelling.

  • Answer all the questions:
    Don’t leave any answers blank. If you’re not sure of the answer, guess!

  • Try to relax!:
    Remember that you have studied hard and now you are ready for the exam.

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MORE KET for Schools tests

Download these files if you want to do some extra practice on KET for Schools’ test.

Good practice and good luck!

KET for SCHOOLS SAMPLE PAPERS 1

KET for SCHOOLS SAMPLE PAPERS 2

KET for SCHOOLS SAMPLE PAPERS 3

Guiño

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3rd CONDITIONAL: NO POSSIBILITY

IF + SUBJECT + PAST PERFECT, SUBJECT + WOULD + HAVE + PAST PARTICIPLE

SUBJECT + WOULD + HAVE + PAST PARTICIPLE + IF + SUBJECT + PAST PERFECT

The third conditional (also called conditional type 3) is a structure used for talking about unreal situations in the past.

The first conditional and second conditionals talk about the future. With the third conditional we talk about the past. We talk about a condition in the past that did not happen. That is why there is no possibility for this condition.The third conditional is also like a dream, but with no possibility of the dream coming true.

Last week you bought a lottery ticket. But you did not win. :-(


conditionresult
 Past PerfectWOULD HAVE + Past Participle
IfI had won the lotteryI would have bought a car.

 

Notice that we are thinking about an impossible past condition. You did not win the lottery. So the condition was not true, and that particular condition can never be true because it is finished.

We use the past perfect tense to talk about the impossible past condition. We use WOULD HAVE + past participle to talk about the impossible past result.

The important thing about the third conditional is that both the condition and result are impossible now.

Look at some more examples in the tables below:

IFconditionresult
 past perfectWOULD HAVE + past participle
IfI had seen MaryI would have told her.
IfTara had been free yesterdayI would have invited her.
Ifthey had not passed their examtheir teacher would have been sad.
Ifit had rained yesterdaywould you have stayed at home?
Ifit had rained yesterdaywhat would you have done?
 
resultIFcondition
WOULD HAVE + past participle past perfect
I would have told MaryifI had seen her.
I would have invited Taraifshe had been free yesterday.
Their teacher would have been sadifthey had not passed their exam.
Would you have stayed at homeifit had rained yesterday?
What would you have doneifit had rained yesterday?

 

Now check your knowledge with this activity:

Third Conditional Exercise

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TARGET KET and PET for Schools

                              

Here is some information, advice and extra practise to help you pass your exam.

  • Find out about the exam: How many papers are there? What do you have to do?
  • Try an online practice test in the style of the computer-based test.
  • Read advice on how to prepare for the exam.
  • Read tips for exam day to make sure you are ready.
  • Watch a video of a speaking test so you can see what you need to do.
  • Look at links for students and find out more about the exam and practise grammar and vocabulary.

TARGET KET for Schools Student’s Area

TARGET PET for Schools Student’s Area

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KET for Schools Real Test

Isn’t it interesting to have the opportunity of watching a real oral test?

I’m sure you can do it better, can’t you?  Guiño

08/04/2013 14:32 miprimerzarzablog #. ENGLISH Hay 1 comentario.

Writing Task16

Friday, 5th April 2013


Write an answer to one of the questions (1 or 2).

Write your answer in about 100 words.

 

Question 1

• This is part of a letter you receive from your English friend Pat.

My family and I are coming to visit your area soon. Can you tell me some good places for us to go? And what will the weather be like while we are there?

• Now write a letter, answering Pat’s questions.

 

Question 2

• Your English teacher asks you to write a story.

• This is the title for your story:

‘The day we went to the zoo!’

                           

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PET for Schools on-line practice

An intermediate level exam, testing your ability to deal with written and spoken communications.

Pet English Test for Schools (PETS)


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Cambridge English: Preliminary (PET) for Schools

Cambridge English: Preliminary for Schools banner

Practical English for everyday use

Cambridge English: Preliminary for Schools, also known as Preliminary English Test (PET) for Schools, shows that a student can understand and communicate using everyday written and spoken English.

Cambridge English: Preliminary for Schools is an intermediate level qualification.

Why take the exam?

Every year, thousands of students take Cambridge English: Preliminary for Schools to show they can use English to communicate for everyday purposes.

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Cambridge English: Key (KET) for Schools

Cambridge English: Key for Schools banner

A great first step in learning English 

Cambridge English: Key for Schools, also known as Key English Test (KET) for Schools, shows that a student can use simple, everyday written and spoken English. 

Cambridge English: Key for Schools is a basic level qualification.

Why take the exam?

Every year, thousands of students take Cambridge English: Key for Schools to show they can use everyday written and spoken English.

22/03/2013 10:47 miprimerzarzablog #. ENGLISH No hay comentarios. Comentar.

PAST PERFECT

[had + past participle]

Examples:

  • You had studied English before you moved to New York.
  • Had you studied English before you moved to New York?
  • You had not studied English before you moved to New York.

Complete List of Past Perfect Forms

USE 1 Completed Action Before Something in the Past

The Past Perfect expresses the idea that something occurred before another action in the past. It can also show that something happened before a specific time in the past.

Examples:

  • had never seen such a beautiful beach before I went to Kauai.
  • I did not have any money because I had lost my wallet.
  • Tony knew Istanbul so well because he had visited the city several times.
  • Had Susan ever studied Thai before she moved to Thailand?
  • She only understood the movie because she had read the book.
  • Kristine had never been to an opera before last night.
  • We were not able to get a hotel room because we had not booked in advance.
  • A: Had you ever visited the U.S. before your trip in 2006?
    B: Yes, I had been to the U.S. once before.
  • We had had that car for ten years before it broke down.
  • By the time Alex finished his studies, he had been in London for over eight years.
  • They felt bad about selling the house because they had owned it for more than forty years.

 

MOREOVER

If the Past Perfect action did occur at a specific time, the Simple Past can be used instead of the Past Perfect when "before" or "after" is used in the sentence. The words "before" and "after" actually tell you what happens first, so the Past Perfect is optional. For this reason, both sentences below are correct.

Examples:

  • She had visited her Japanese relatives once in 1993 before she moved in with them in 1996.
  • She visited her Japanese relatives once in 1993 before she moved in with them in 1996.

HOWEVER

If the Past Perfect is not referring to an action at a specific time, Past Perfect is not optional. Compare the examples below. Here Past Perfect is referring to a lack of experience rather than an action at a specific time. For this reason, Simple Past cannot be used.

Examples:

  • She never saw a bear before she moved to Alaska. Not Correct
  • She had never seen a bear before she moved to Alaska. Correct

ADVERB PLACEMENT

The examples below show the placement for grammar adverbs such as: always, only, never, ever, still, just, etc.

Examples:

  • You had previously studied English before you moved to New York.
  • Had you previously studied English before you moved to New York?

ACTIVE / PASSIVE

Examples:

  • George had repaired many cars before he received his mechanic’s license.Active
  • Many cars had been repaired by George before he received his mechanic’s license. Passive

More About Active / Passive Forms

EXERCISES AND RELATED TOPICS

09/03/2013 14:41 miprimerzarzablog #. ENGLISH Hay 2 comentarios.

KET for Schools on-line Practice

An elementary level exam, testing your ability to deal with written and spoken communications.

You have to do this practice before Monday 11th March, and tell Alejandra and me how you did.

Good luck!!  Risa

Key English Test for Schools (KETS)

04/03/2013 11:34 miprimerzarzablog #. ENGLISH Hay 18 comentarios.

Cambridge Monolingual wordlists

Here there are two books (one with the definitions and the other one without them) with the vocabulary you need to know for your Cambridge examinations. I thought you might want to print or save them in your computer to carry on practicing at home.

Wordlist with definitions - Objective PET

Wordlist without definitions - Objective PET

01/03/2013 21:13 miprimerzarzablog #. ENGLISH Hay 1 comentario.

RELATIVE PRONOUNS (Relative Clauses)

In grammar, the word relative refers to a previously used word or clause in the same sentence; therefore, when pronoun words such as who, which or that are used to begin a relative clause they are referred to as relative pronouns. relative clause is a qualifying clause in a sentence that refers to, and provides additional information about, a preceding noun or pronoun and often begins with a relative pronoun.

***

How are these three relative pronouns used in relation to persons, animals, things or collective nouns (nouns that refer to a group of people or things considered as a single unit such as the word "committee") in a sentence?

  • Who is used to refer to persons.

  • Which is used to refer to animals, things and occasionally collective nouns referring to persons.

  • That is used to also refer to animals or things; however, it can also be used to refer to people.

***

Example Sentences Using the Relative Pronouns:

 Who

1.  Doctors who specialize in treating diseases and conditions of the larynx are called laryngologists.

In this example, the relative pronoun "who" refers back to the noun word "Doctors".

2.  In Greek mythology, Helen of Troy, who was also known as Helen of Sparta, was the wife of Menelaus.

Here, the relative pronoun "who" refers back to the proper noun word "Helen".

***

Which

1.  The American lobster, which thrives in the cold waters of the North Atlantic coast, is a solitary sea crustacean.

In this example, the relative pronoun"which" refers back to the noun word"lobster". 

2.  Our log cabin, which we purchased last week, is located in Virginia.

Here, the relative pronoun "which" refers back to the noun word "cabin".

3.  The audience, which had become lukewarm toward the singers in Act I of the play, became enamored with the new singers in Act II.

In this sentence, the relative pronoun "which" relates back to the collective noun word "audience".

***

That

1.  The blouse that Collette wore had a stain on its sleeve.

In this example, the relative pronoun "that" refers back to (or is relative to) the noun word "blouse".

2.  Porpoises have a communicative ability that is quite unique.

Here, the relative pronoun "that" refers back to the noun word "ability".

3.  The men that work atop high buildings cannot afford to have a fear of heights.

In this sentence, the relative pronoun "that"refers back to the noun word "men".

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Writing Task 14

Friday, 22nd February 2013

READING INTO WRITING

You receive an email from a new pen friend in England. Her name is Jenny Kemp and she wants to know about your life. Read Jenny’s letter and then, in your own words, write a reply (approximately 75 words):

     a)    giving her the information she wants, and

     b)    asking her a different question about herself.

 

 

Hello!

My name is Jenny Kemp and I’m fifteen years old. Here’s my photo.

I want to be your pen friend. Tell me about yourself. I really want to know about:

      - your hobbies

      -  what you did last weekend

      -  what you are going to do for your next holiday.

Send me your photograph if you can!

Bye for now,

Jenny

 

                                  

22/02/2013 12:58 miprimerzarzablog #. ENGLISH Hay 2 comentarios.

Writing Task 12

Friday, 1st February 2013

FACTUAL WRITING

Your American friend is visiting you and wants to go and buy some souvenirs for his family. There is a gift shop near your house. Write some directions for your friend telling him how to find it. Say when the shop is open and what he can buy there.

 

                                  

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Writing Task 11

Friday, 25th January 2013

CORRESPONDENCE

Last week you played a new sport for the first time. Write a letter to your English penfriend about the sport. Say what equipment is necessary and tell him what you like and dislike about the sport.

                                  

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TEST YOUR ENGLISH

Test your English with this quick, free online test. It will give you an idea of your English level.

Click ’start’ and answer each of the questions.

  • There are 20 multiple-choice questions.
  • There is no time limit.
  • You will be able to see answers at the end of the test.

Please note: This is not a Cambridge ESOL exam and the test scores and levels are very approximate.

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THE PASSIVE FORM

Sentences can be active or passive. Therefore, tenses also have "active forms" and "passive forms." You must learn to recognize the difference to successfully speak English.

Active Form

In active sentences, the thing doing the action is the subject of the sentence and the thing receiving the action is the object. Most sentences are active.

[Thing doing action] + [verb] + [thing receiving action]

Examples:

Passive Form

In passive sentences, the thing receiving the action is the subject of the sentence and the thing doing the action is optionally included near the end of the sentence. You can use the passive form if you think that the thing receiving the action is more important or should be emphasized. You can also use the passive form if you do not know who is doing the action or if you do not want to mention who is doing the action.

When rewriting active sentences in passive voice, note the following:

  • the object of the active sentence becomes the subject of the passive sentence
  • the finite form of the verb is changed (to be + past participle)
  • the subject of the active sentence becomes the object of the passive sentence (or is dropped)

[Thing receiving action] + [be] + [past participle of verb] + [by] + [thing doing action]

Examples:

Active / Passive Overview

 ActivePassive
Simple Present
Once a week, Tom cleans the house.
Once a week, the house is cleaned by Tom.
Present Continuous
Right now, Sarah is writing the letter.
Right now, the letter is being written by Sarah.
Simple Past
Sam repaired the car.
The car was repaired by Sam.
Past Continuous
The salesman was helping the customer when the thief came into the store.
The customer was being helped by the salesman when the thief came into the store.
Present Perfect
Many tourists have visited that castle.
That castle has been visited by many tourists.
Present Perfect Continuous
Recently, John has been doing the work.
Recently, the work has been being done by John.
Past Perfect
George had repaired many cars before he received his mechanic’s license.
Many cars had been repaired by George before he received his mechanic’s license.
Past Perfect Continuous
Chef Jones had been preparing the restaurant’s fantastic dinners for two years before he moved to Paris.
The restaurant’s fantastic dinners had been being prepared by Chef Jones for two years before he moved to Paris.
Simple Future
will
Someone will finish the work by 5:00 PM.
The work will be finished by 5:00 PM.
Simple Future
be going to 
Sally is going to make a beautiful dinner tonight.
A beautiful dinner is going to be made by Sally tonight.
Future Continuous
will
At 8:00 PM tonight, John will be washing the dishes.
At 8:00 PM tonight, the dishes will be being washedby John.
Future Continuous
be going to
At 8:00 PM tonight, John is going to be washingthe dishes.
At 8:00 PM tonight, the dishes are going to be being washed by John.
Future Perfect
will
They will have completed the project before the deadline.
The project will have been completed before the deadline.
Future Perfect
be going to
They are going to have completed the project before the deadline.
The project is going to have been completed before the deadline.
Future Perfect Continuous
will
The famous artist will have been painting the mural for over six months by the time it is finished.
The mural will have been being painted by the famous artist for over six months by the time it is finished.
Future Perfect Continuous
be going to
The famous artist is going to have been painting the mural for over six months by the time it is finished.
The mural is going to have been being painted by the famous artist for over six months by the time it is finished.
Used to
Jerry used to pay the bills.
The bills used to be paid by Jerry.
Would Always
My mother would always make the pies.
The pies would always be made by my mother.
Future in the Past
Would
I knew John would finish the work by 5:00 PM.
I knew the work would be finished by 5:00 PM.
Future in the Past
Was Going to
I thought Sally was going to make a beautiful dinner tonight.
I thought a beautiful dinner was going to be madeby Sally tonight.

 

Exercises

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Writing Task 10

Friday, 11th January 2013

FACTUAL WRITING

An older relative recently bought a mobile phone but cannot use it very well. Write some simple instructions for your relative telling her how to send an SMS message.

                                  

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Writing Task about CHRISTMAS: 6ºA and 6ºC

Friday, 14th December 2012

Creative writing (6ºA)

Write a composition using the following Christmas words:

family                    happiness

mistletoe               peace

reindeer                 be lovely

love                      snowman

happier                  fun

ornaments             January

friends                  star

Christmas carols     snow

Christmas present  Happy Christmas

New Year’s Eve      Christmas tree 

                           

 

Creative writing (6ºC)

Write a composition using the following Christmas words:

love                       snow             

food                      Santa Claus   

presents                holiday

happiness               thankful            

children                 snowman       

family                    Christmas

star                      ornaments

The Three Wise Men      

                   

14/12/2012 10:28 miprimerzarzablog #. ENGLISH Hay 3 comentarios.

Writing Task 9

Wednesday, 5th December 2012

CORRESPONDENCE

Your Irish friend is going to visit your area next month, but cannot decide where to go. Write an email to your friend comparing two different places you know well. Say which one is best for your friend.

                                  

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Writing Task 8

Friday, 23rd November 2012

Descriptive / Creative writing

Write a description (true or imaginary) for a writing competition about a time when you helped a friend in trouble. Describe what you did to help and explain what you have learnt from the experience.

 

                                  

23/11/2012 14:00 miprimerzarzablog #. ENGLISH Hay 1 comentario.

Present Perfect with for, since, just, before, yet and already

Present Perfect + for and since

Using the present perfect, we can define a period of time before now by considering its duration, with for + a period of time, or by considering its starting point, with since + a point in time.

For + a period of time

  • for six years, for a week, for a month, for hours, for two hours.
  • I have worked here for five years.

Since + a point in time

  • since this morning, since last week, since yesterday,
  • since I was a child, since Wednesday, since 2 o’clock.
  • I have worked here since 1990.

present perfect with for

  • She has lived here for twenty years.
  • We have taught at this school for a long time.
  • Alice has been married for three months.
  • They have been at the hotel for a week.

present perfect with since

  • She has lived here since 1980.
  • We have taught at this school since 1965
  • Alice has been married since March 2nd.
  • They have been at the hotel since last Tuesday.

 

Present perfect + just, before, already and yet

PRESENT PERFECT + just and before

Just

indicates that the action has happened in the very recent past and it is completed, e.g.
a. I’ve just lost my car keys and can’t leave for work.
b. Don’t call John, I’ve just done it.

Position

Just can be placed before the main verb (past participle).

Before

indicates the existence of past events, and emphasizing the pastness of the event with a redundant before e.g.
a. She has seen the movie before.
b. I have met her before the summer.

Position

Before is usually placed at the end of the sentence.

PRESENT PERFECT + already and yet

refers to an action that has happened at an unspecified time before now. It suggests that there is no need for repetition, e.g.
a. I’ve already drunk three coffees this morning. (and you’re offering me another one!)
b. Don’t write to John, I’ve already done it.

It is also used in questions:

  • Have you already written to John?
  • Has she finished her homework already?

Position

already can be placed before the main verb (past participle) or at the end of the sentence:

  • I have already been to Tokyo.
  • I have been to Tokyo already.

Yet

is used in negative statements and questions, to mean (not) in the period of time between before now and now, (not) up to and including the present. e.g.

  • Have you met Judy yet?
  • I haven’t visited the Tate Gallery yet.
  • Has he arrived yet?
  • They haven’t eaten yet.

Position

Yet is usually placed at the end of the sentence.


21/11/2012 17:30 miprimerzarzablog #. ENGLISH Hay 2 comentarios.

Present Perfect

Present Perfect Verb Tense

1. Present Perfect - Form

 The present perfect of any verb is composed of two elements : the appropriate form of the auxiliary verb to have (present tense), plus the past participle of the main verb. The past participle of a regular verb is base+ed, e.g. played, arrived, looked

Affirmative

Subject

to have

past participle

She

has

visited

Negative

Subject

to have + not

past participle

She

hasn’t

visited

Interrogative

to have

subject

past participle

Has

she

visited..?

Interrogative negative
to have + notsubjectpast participle
Hasn’tshevisited...?

Example: to walk, present perfect

AffirmativeNegativeInterrogative

I have walked

I haven’t walked

Have I walked?

You have walked

You haven’t walked

Have you walked?

He, she, it has walked

He, she, it hasn’t walked

Has he,she,it walked

We have walked

We haven’t walked

Have we walked?

You have walked

You haven’t walked

Have you walked?

They have walked

They haven’t walked

Have they walked?

2. Present perfect, function

 The Present Perfect is used to indicate a link between the present and the past. The time of the action is before now but not specified, and we are often more interested in the resultthan in the action itself.

BE CAREFUL! There may be a verb tense in your language with a similar form, but the meaning is probably NOT the same.

The Present Perfect is used to describe:

  1. An action or situation that started in the past and continues in the present. Example: I have lived in Bristol since 1984 (= and I still do.)
  2. An action performed during a period that has not yet finished. Example: She has been to the cinema twice this week (= and the week isn’t over yet.)
  3. A repeated action in an unspecified period between the past and now. Example: We have visited Portugal several times.
  4. An action that was completed in the very recent past, (expressed by ’just’). Example: I have just finished my work.
  5. An action when the time is not important. Example: He has read ’War and Peace’(the result of his reading is important)

Note: When we want to give or ask details about when, where, who, we use the simple pastExample: He read ’War and Peace’ last week.

Examples:

1. Actions started in the past and continuing in the present.

  • They haven’t lived here for years.
  • She has worked in the bank for five years.
  • We have had the same car for ten years.
  • Have you played the piano since you were a child?

2. When the time period referred to has not finished.

  • I have worked hard this week.
  • It has rained a lot this year.
  • We haven’t seen her today.

3. Actions repeated in an unspecified period between the past and now.

  • They have seen that film six times.
  • It has happened several times already.
  • She has visited them frequently.
  • We have eaten at that restaurant many times.

4. Actions completed in the very recent past (+just).

  • Have you just finished work?
  • have just eaten.
  • We have just seen her.
  • Has he just left?

5. When the precise time of the action is not important or not known.

  • Someone has eaten my soup!
  • Have you seen ’Gone with the Wind’?
  • She’s studied Japanese, Russian and English.
21/11/2012 16:40 miprimerzarzablog #. ENGLISH No hay comentarios. Comentar.

Writing Task 7

Friday, 9th November 2012

Descriptive / Creative writing

Write your diary (true or imaginary) for a day when you had the opportunity to do something you have always wanted to do.

 

10/11/2012 20:25 miprimerzarzablog #. ENGLISH No hay comentarios. Comentar.

Writing Task 6

Wednesday, 31st October 2012

Creative writing

Write a Halloween story in which there is a cat, a monster with a problem and a haunted house. Have also someone speaking!!

01/11/2012 20:21 miprimerzarzablog #. ENGLISH Hay 1 comentario.

Writing Task 4

Friday, 19th October 2012

Correspondence

An American film company is making a film in your area next month and they are looking for extras. Write a letter to the film company explaining why you want to be an extra and saying why you might be suitable. Ask for more information about the film.

                                          

19/10/2012 16:39 miprimerzarzablog #. ENGLISH Hay 1 comentario.

PASSIVE TENSE

Sentences can be active or passive. Therefore, tenses also have "active forms" and "passive forms." You must learn to recognize the difference to successfully speak English.

Active Form

In active sentences, the thing doing the action is the subject of the sentence and the thing receiving the action is the object. Most sentences are active.

[Thing doing action] + [verb] + [thing receiving action]

Examples:

Passive Form

In passive sentences, the thing receiving the action is the subject of the sentence and the thing doing the action is optionally included near the end of the sentence. You can use the passive form if you think that the thing receiving the action is more important or should be emphasized. You can also use the passive form if you do not know who is doing the action or if you do not want to mention who is doing the action.

When rewriting active sentences in passive voice, note the following:

  • the object of the active sentence becomes the subject of the passive sentence
  • the finite form of the verb is changed (to be + past participle)
  • the subject of the active sentence becomes the object of the passive sentence (or is dropped)

[Thing receiving action] + [be] + [past participle of verb] + [by] + [thing doing action]

Examples:

Active / Passive Overview

Active Passive
Simple Present
Once a week, Tom cleans the house.
Once a week, the house is cleaned by Tom.
Present Continuous
Right now, Sarah is writing the letter.
Right now, the letter is being written by Sarah.
Simple Past
Sam repaired the car.
The car was repaired by Sam.
Past Continuous
The salesman was helping the customer when the thief came into the store.
The customer was being helped by the salesman when the thief came into the store.

Exercises

24/09/2012 13:23 miprimerzarzablog #. ENGLISH No hay comentarios. Comentar.

Does the bird eat the Gingerbread Man??


So...does the bird eat the Gingerbread Man?

Wait and see...the decision will be in your hands.

Expect the unexpected after the summer holiday!

 

03/06/2012 19:41 miprimerzarzablog #. ENGLISH Hay 3 comentarios.

PERSONAL ACCOUNT: Steps to follow

These are the steps you have to follow when writing Your Personal Account:

1- Title.

2- Introduction (1st paragraph).

3- Who was with you when the event happened (2nd paragraph).

4- The body of the problem (3rd paragraph).

5- What happened in the end, how people felt, and what you have learnt (4th paragragh).

* DO NOT FORGET TO USE THE PAST TENSE.


25/04/2012 09:36 miprimerzarzablog #. ENGLISH Hay 2 comentarios.

FIRST CONDITIONAL

IF + SUBJECT + PRESENT SIMPLE , SUBJECT + WILL + INFINITIVE

SUBJECT + WILL + INFINITIVE + IF + SUBJECT + PRESENT SIMPLE

We use the First Conditional to talk about future events that are likely to happen.

  • If we take John, he’ll be really pleased.
  • If you give me some money, I’ll pay you back tomorrow.
  • If they tell us they want it, we’ll have to give it to them.
  • If Mary comes, she’ll want to drive.
The ’if’ clause can be used with different present forms.
  • If I go to New York again, I’ll buy you a souvenir from the Empire State Building.
  • If he’s feeling better, he’ll come.
  • If she hasn’t heard the bad news yet, I’ll tell her.

The "future clause" can contain ’going to’ or the future perfect as well as ’will’.

  • If I see him, I’m going to tell him exactly how angry I am.
  • If we don’t get the contract, we’ll have wasted a lot of time and money.

The "future clause" can also contain other modal verbs such as ’can’ and ’must’.

  • If you go to New York, you must have the cheesecake in Lindy’s.
  • If he comes, you can get a lift home with him.

exercise 1

exercise 2

exercise 3

exercise 4

exercise 5

12/04/2012 22:11 miprimerzarzablog #. ENGLISH No hay comentarios. Comentar.

What is reported speech?

Reported speech is when you tell somebody else what you or a person said before.

Distinction must be made between direct speech and reported speech.

Direct speech vs Reported speech:

Direct speechReported speech
She says:" she likes tuna fish."She says that she likes tuna fish.
She said: "I’m visiting Paris next weekend"She said that she was visiting Paris the following weekend.

Different types of sentences

When you use reported speech, you either report:

  • Statements
  • questions
  • requests / commands
  • other types

I. Reporting Statements

When transforming statements, check whether you have to change:

  • pronouns
  • tense
  • place and time expression

1-Pronouns

In reported speech, you often have to change the pronoun depending on who says what.

Example:

She says, “My dad likes roast chicken.” – She says that her dad likes roast chicken.

2-Tenses

  • If the sentence starts in the present, there is no backshift of tenses in Reported speech.
  • If the sentence starts in the past, there is often backshift of tenses in Reported speech.
 Direct speechReported speech
(no backshift)“I write poems.”He says that he writes poems.
(backshift)“I write poems.”
He said that he wrote poems.

No backshift

Do not change the tense if the introductory clause is in a present tense (e. g. He says). Note, however, that you might have to change the form of the present tense verb (3rd person singular).

Example:
He says, “I write poems.” – He says that he writes English.

Backshift

You must change the tense if the introductory clause is in a past tense (e. g. He said).

Example:
He said, “I am happy.” – He said that he was happy.

Examples of the main changes in tense:

Direct SpeechReported Speech
Simple Present
He said: "I am happy"
Simple Past
He said that he was happy
Present Progressive
He said: "I’m looking for my keys"
Past Progressive
He said that he was looking for his keys

3-Pronouns, place and time expressions

Place and time expressions change if the context of the reported statement (ie the location and/or the period of time) is different from that of the direct speech.

In the following tables, you will find ways of transforming personal pronouns, place and time expressions into reported speech.

 

Changes in Personal Pronouns: 
 

Ihe, she
youhe, she, they
wethey
theythey
he, shehe, she, I

Changes in Possessive Pronouns: 
 

myhis, her, my
yourhis, her, my
his, herhis, her
theirtheir
our,their

Changes in Places: 
 

herethere
thisthat
thesethose

here, there

at the George Hotel, at school

Changes in Time: 
 

last year, last month, last weekthe year/month/week before
yesterday,

the day before yesterday

the day before, 

two days before

todaythat day, yesterday, the day before
tomorrowthe next day
the day after tomorrowin two days
next week/month/yearthe following week/month/year
on Mondayon Monday, 11th December
this morning / afternoon / evening/nightthat morning / afternoon / evening/ night
last week, month, yearthe previous week, month, year
three days, weeks, months, ...years agothree days, weeks, months, .....years before


Examples of the main changes in tense:

Direct SpeechReported Speech
Simple Present
He said: "I am happy"
Simple Past
He said that he was happy
Present Progressive
He said: "I’m looking for my keys"
Past Progressive
He said that he was looking for his keys
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SPELLING PRACTICE

 

Click on the image to have some extra Spelling Practice.

02/03/2012 21:12 miprimerzarzablog #. ENGLISH Hay 1 comentario.

GOING TO

Form

to be (am, are, is) + going to + infinitive

Use

1) planned actions in the future

We are going to sing at the party.


2) You are certain that something is going to happen in the future.

Look at this car! It is going to crash into the yellow one.


Examples

Affirmative sentences:

I am going to play handball.
I’m going to play handball.
You are going to play handball.
You’re going to play handball.

Negative sentences:

I am not going to have a picnic.
I’m not going to have a picnic.
You are not going to have a picnic.
You’re not going to have a picnic.
You aren’t going to have a picnic.

Questions:

Am I going to have a picnic? Are you going to  have a picnic?

ATTENTION!!

Do not mix up with the Present Continuous!

going to-future Present Continuous
He’s going to read the book.
He’s reading the book.

 

exercise 1

exercise 2

exercise 3

exercise 4

exercise 5

exercise 6

15/02/2012 21:34 miprimerzarzablog #. ENGLISH No hay comentarios. Comentar.

WILL and WON'T

In English, there are many ways of expressing future time. One of the most common is using the modal auxiliary verb “will”. This page will explain the main meanings of “will” and show you how to form the future with “will”.


1. Using “will” with verbs

Will”, like all modal verbs in English, does not change its form, and it is followed by the simple form of the main verb. “Will” is NOT usually used in first person questions. Note also that willis often shortened to ’ll. This diagram should make the situation clearer:

SubjectStatementQuestion
II will stop smoking.
I’ll stop smoking.
[not usually used]
YouYou will stop smoking.
You’ll stop smoking.
Will you stop smoking?
HeHe will stop smoking.
He’ll stop smoking.
Will he stop smoking?
SheShe will stop smoking.
She’ll stop smoking.
Will she stop smoking?
ItIt will be hard to stop.
It’ll be hard to stop.
Will it be hard to stop?
WeWe will stop smoking.
We’ll stop smoking.
[not usually used]
TheyThey will stop smoking.
They’ll stop smoking.
Will they stop smoking?

Negatives are formed with “will not” or “won’t”:

He will not stop smoking.
He won’t stop smoking.

2. The meaning of “will” future forms

Will” is usually used in three situations:

SituationExample
Volunteering to do something“Will someone open the window for me?”
“I’ll do it!”
Deciding to do something“I’ve made up my mind. I’ll go to Whistler for my vacation.”
Forcing someone to do something.“Dad, I don’t want to clean my room!”
“You’ll do it, and you’ll do it NOW!”

Will” is NOT usually used for fixed plans or scheduled events.

When you are sure that you understand the lesson, you can continue with the exercises (click on the image).


17/01/2012 22:15 miprimerzarzablog #. ENGLISH Hay 2 comentarios.

ENGLISH FOR THE GAMES

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Welcome to the free learner resources based around the London 2012 Games made by the British Council.

You can practise your English as you learn about the London 2012 Games and the Olympic and Paralympic history, learn all about Olympic and Paralympic sports, and values. Play games, watch videos, read articles, and do interactive exercises. 

             

02/01/2012 12:22 miprimerzarzablog #. ENGLISH Hay 2 comentarios.

SIMPLE PAST vs PRESENT PERFECT

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Simple Past

Present Perfect Simple

Irregular verbs: see 2nd column of irregular verbs

Example: I spoke

Irregular verbs: have/has + 3rd column of irregular verbs

Example:

I / you / we / they have spoken.
he / she / it has spoken
 

Regular verbs: have/has + infinitive + ed

Example: I / you / we / they have worked
he / she / it has worked

 

Exceptions when adding ’ed’:

  • when the final letter is e, only add d. Example: love - loved
  • after a short, stressed vowel, the final consonant is doubled. Example: admit - admitted
  • final l is always doubled in British English (not in American English). Example: travel - travelled
  • after a consonant, final y becomes i (but: not after a vowel). Example: worry - worried, but: play - played

Use

In British English, the use of Simple Past and Present Perfect is quite strict. As soon as a time expression in the past is given, you have to use Simple Past. If there are no signal words, you must decide if we just talk about an action in the past or if its consequence in the present is important.

Certain time in the past or just / already / yet?

Do you want to express that an action happened at a certain time in the past (even if it was just a few seconds ago) or that an action has just / already / not yet happened?

Simple Past Present Perfect Simple

certain time in the past

Example: I phoned Mary 2 minutes ago.

just / already / not yet

Example: I have just phoned Mary.

Certain event in the past or how often so far?

Do you want to express when a certain action took place or whether / how often an action has happened till now?

Simple Past Present Perfect Simple

certain event in the past

Example: He went to Canada last summer.

whether / how often till now

Example: Have you ever been to Canada? I have been to Canada twice.

Emphasis on action or result?

Do you just want to express what happened in the past? Or do you want to emphasise the result (a past action’s consequence in the present)?

Simple Past Present Perfect Simple

Emphasis on action

Example:  I bought a new bike. (just telling what I did in the past.)

Emphasis on result

Example: I have bought a new bike. (with this sentence I actually want to express that I have a new bike now.)

Signal Words

Simple Past  
   Present Perfect Simple
  • yesterday
  • ... ago
  • in 1990
  • the other day
  • last ...
  • just
  • already
  • up to now
  • until now / till now
  • ever
  • (not) yet
  • so far
  • lately / recently

Exercises:

Test

Simple Past Present Perfect Simple
certain event in the past Example:He went to Canada last summer. whether / how often till now Example:Have you ever been to Canada? / I have been to Canada twice.
22/11/2011 21:41 miprimerzarzablog #. ENGLISH Hay 3 comentarios.

Easter Homework

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ENGLISH

Although is Easter and is time for holidays and relax, here you have some homework to practise your oral exam.

14/04/2011 11:51 miprimerzarzablog #. ENGLISH Hay 2 comentarios.

Saint Valentine´s Day

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Hi children !!

Here you can sing our Saint Valentine´s songs.

Enjoy them. Have a good weekend.

And do not forget to study science.

"The reason"

" You and me"

12/02/2011 18:20 miprimerzarzablog #. ENGLISH Hay 1 comentario.

20101029125925-meg-2.gif

WATCH THESE NICE HALLOWEEN

VIDEOS

AND

HAVE A FRIGHTING 

HALLOWEEN.

 

MEG AND MOG

MEG AND MOG 2

29/10/2010 12:59 miprimerzarzablog #. ENGLISH Hay 2 comentarios.

CIRCULAR FIESTA DE HALLOWEEN

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 (All–Hallows–Evening) proviene de la tradición celto-irlandesa con la que se celebraba el final del verano y de la época de recolección, momento en que se recordaba a los seres queridos ya fallecidos (para nosotros el Día de Todos los Santos). En algunos países, para acercar esta fiesta a los niños, se adquirió la costumbre de que éstos fueran pidiendo caramelos por las casas.

Como ya es habitual en nuestro colegio, buscando acercar la cultura anglosajona a nuestros alumnos a un nivel no sólo educativo sino también lúdico, durante esta última semana de octubre celebraremos, un año más, la festividad de Halloween. Para darle un toque más divertido os proponemos que el viernes 29 los niños vengan vestidos de negro o azul marino para recordar la noche y/o naranja para recordar las calabazas. También pueden traer para tomar en el recreo una fruta de color naranja.

Este año haremos también un concurso de calabazas decoradas, por lo que os animamos a ayudar a vuestros hijos a decorar su propia calabaza y participar en un terrorífico concurso en el que se premiará la calabaza más divertida, la más elegante y la más aterradora. Deberán traerla al colegio cualquier día de esta semana. Y ya sabéis que si vaciáis la calabaza con lo que os sobre podéis hacer ¡¡una deliciosa tarta de Halloween!!

27/10/2010 11:51 miprimerzarzablog #. ENGLISH No hay comentarios. Comentar.

SAINT PATRICK´S DAY

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WHAT DO YOU KNOW ABOUT IRELAND?

IT´S  A WONDERFUL COUNTRY, AN ISLAND VERY NEAR GREAT BRITAIN, ALL GREEN WITH NICE PEOPLE.

NEXT 17TH OF MARCH, THEY WILL CELEBRATED THEIR PATRON SAINT " SAINT PATRICK´S" AND THIS IS THE HISTORY.

SAINT PATRICK´S DAY TRADITIONS

12/03/2010 00:15 miprimerzarzablog #. ENGLISH Hay 2 comentarios.

SAINT VALENTINE´S DAY 14th of February

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HAPPY DAY TO EVERYBODY!!! Beso

HERE YOU HAVE A FANTASTIC POEM FROM GRADE 3 C

POEM:

FRIENDS ARE FUN

TEACHERS ARE GOOD

THE SCHOOL IS  NICE

AND I LOVE YOU !

3ºC

15/02/2010 00:53 miprimerzarzablog #. ENGLISH Hay 2 comentarios.

Pancake day

·         For All you Maid Marian fans

Danny John-Jules has performed many songs written for 'Maid Marian And Her Merry Men' - a comical children's adaptation of the Robin Hood tale - in his guise as Barrington, the First Rastafarian. This song opens the episode, 'A Game Called John'.

It's pancake day
Yes, it's pancake day
Yes, it's p-p-p-p-p-p-p-p-pancake day
Well, it's pancake day
It's really pancake day
Yes, it's p-p-p-p-p-p-p-p-pancake day

Now the Merry Men know about pancake making
'cause pancake day is a regular fixture
You take your frying pan, and some sugar and jam
And get on down to make the mixture

Well you take a dozen eggs, take a cup of milk
And don't forget to add a little flour
And then you beat it up with a wooden spoon
And leave it to settle for just one hour

'cause it's pancake day
Yes, it's pancake day
Yes, it's p-p-p-p-p-p-p-p-pancake day
Well, it's pancake day
It's crucial pancake day
Yes, it's p-p-p-p-p-p-p-p-pancake day

But back in the village of Worksop
Where the living ain't so funny
They make their pancakes out of dirty old mud
'cause they ain't got no flipping money

Their smiles are wide, 'cause the tears they hide
Even though their life is hell
But the smiles start to fall, when the sheriff comes to call
And he brings King John as well

12/02/2010 14:26 miprimerzarzablog #. ENGLISH Hay 3 comentarios.

PEACE DAY

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Who is the best peace singer?

 With no doubt MICHAEL JACKSON.

"HEAL THE WORLD"

25/01/2010 22:12 miprimerzarzablog #. ENGLISH Hay 4 comentarios.

Halloween is coming soooon!

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HELLO KIDS!

HALLOWEEN IS COMING SOON , THE NEXT 31 st  of october.

HERE YOU HAVE THE SKELETON SONG. ENJOY IT!

Skeleton song.

28/10/2009 23:47 miprimerzarzablog #. ENGLISH No hay comentarios. Comentar.

BACK TO SCHOOL

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HERE WE ARE !

We are so happy to see our new students.

This is for uuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuu!!!

BACK TO SCHOOL

28/09/2009 18:55 miprimerzarzablog #. ENGLISH No hay comentarios. Comentar.

Your teacher in York, UK

Hello my dear kids,

How is your summer going so far? I’m spending a couple of weeks in England, in a very nice town called York.

The weather here is not as nice as it is in Spain, in fact it is quite chilly and wet. But I’m having a great experience anyway.

Here is a video of the town. Hope you like it.

23/07/2009 12:21 miprimerzarzablog #. ENGLISH Hay 6 comentarios.

SUMMERTIME ACTIVITIES

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The kids are out of school and they have the long lazy days of July and August ahead. They could spend their summer days in front of the TV or your children could be using their imaginations to create projects that are a reflection of their own unique talents.

Does it matter what kids do on their summer vacation? After all, they are in school 10 months of the year and most do take some art classes. Don’t they get enough art classes in school?

Creative and artistic are not the same thing. Creativity is an approach to life. Creative thinkers know that problems have many different solutions. When they encounter an obstacle, they find a way around rather than giving up. They have to be willing to take risks as they learn new skills. These are important life skills that need to be encouraged in children.

Summer activities, childrens crafts and science projects give children the opportunity to learn and practice these skills. Even if they follow a project guide exactly, they will still to make decisions about shades of colors and where to place items. Once they are familiar with the project, most children will want to make it again. That is when they get really creative. First the colors change, then the shapes, and suddenly it is a new project from their own imagination.

Creative projects encourage children to find the resources to make what they want, rather than opening up a box that has all the supplies in one place. The first project in the weekly project list (see below) uses an old knee-hi or pair of pantyhose. What if none are available? Should the children wait until someone else finds all the ‘right’ materials. No, have them start thinking about what they could substitute. Would an old sock work? How about a dish cloth? It is fun to sit back and watch children solve their own problems.

These Summer Activities encourage children to work with a wide variety of materials. One of the best things about summer projects is that they can be done outside. Less mess to clean up!

See the list of Summer Kids Activities for specific project ideas and step by step directions.

By the end of the summer, the kids will have completed lots of great projects. More importantly they will have spent time thinking creatively.

09/07/2009 11:04 miprimerzarzablog #. ENGLISH No hay comentarios. Comentar.

SCHOOL'S OUT!!

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School’s out for summer and that means free time to do what you want: go to bed later, sleep in, play more games, hang out with friends, and explore the world outside.

In case you run out of fun ideas and before you say the dreaded, "I’m bored," to an adult, click on the following links to find activities to enjoy your free time while learning and practicing English.

Summer-boredom-busters

Skywatching at Summer nights

28/06/2009 17:34 miprimerzarzablog #. ENGLISH No hay comentarios. Comentar.

28/06/2009 17:31 miprimerzarzablog #. ENGLISH No hay comentarios. Comentar.

Children's Song: THE WHEELS ON THE BUS

The Wheels on the Bus

(Traditional Children’s Song)

The wheels on the bus go round and round,
round and round, round and round.
The wheels on the bus go round and round,
all through the town.

(Roll hands over each other)

The horn on the bus goes "Beep, beep, beep -
beep, beep, beep - beep, beep, beep".
The horn on the bus goes "Beep, beep, beep"
all through the town.

(Pretend to honk horn)

The wipers on the bus go "swish, swish, swish -
swish, swish, swish - swish, swish, swish".
The wipers on the bus go "Swish, swish, swish",
all through the town.

(Put arms together in front of you and ’swish’ like windshield wipers)

The driver on the bus says "move on back,
move on back, move on back".
The driver on the bus says "move on back",
all through the town.

(Move your right hand pointing at the back)

The children on the bus go up and down,
up and down, up and down.
The children on the bus go up and down,
all through the town.

(Stand up and sit down)

The babies on the bus go, "waa, waa, waa -
waa, waa, waa - waa, waa, waa".
The babies on the bus go "waa, waa, waa",
all through the town.

(Pretend to cry in silence)

The parents on the bus go, "shh, shh, shh -
shh, shh, shh - shh, shh, shh"
The parents on the bus go, "shh, shh, shh"
all through the town.

(Put pointer finger to mouth to `shhh’)


I love you, I love you"
The daddy on the bus says, "I love you, too"
All through the town.

(Point to self on ’I’, right hand over heart on ’love’, and point to other on ’you’)


12/06/2009 11:45 miprimerzarzablog #. ENGLISH Hay 4 comentarios.

Nursery Rhyme: LITTLE JACK HORNER

Little Jack Horner

Little Jack Horner sat in the corner
Eating his Christmas pie,
He put in his thumb and pulled out a plum
And said "What a good boy am I!"

Nursery Rhyme & History

16th Century History origin of the Little Jack Horner story?
Little Jack Horner was reputed to have been the Steward to Richard Whiting (1461 - 1539) the Bishop of Glastonbury. The Steward had an important role
and was responsible for managing the household, collecting taxes and keeping accounts.

 

05/06/2009 09:35 miprimerzarzablog #. ENGLISH No hay comentarios. Comentar.

WE ARE VERY PROUD OF YOU!!

 

We are extremely proud of the effort and work you have done on the Trinity exams.

U R THE BEST!!!

Guiño

01/06/2009 22:28 miprimerzarzablog #. ENGLISH Hay 5 comentarios.

Nursery Rhyme: THERE WAS A CROOKED MAN

There was a Crooked Man poem

There was a crooked man and he walked a crooked mile,
He found a crooked sixpence upon a crooked stile.
He bought a crooked cat, which caught a crooked mouse.
And they all lived together in a little crooked house.

Nursery Rhyme & History

The origin of the Nursery rhyme "There was a crooked man" is in British history
The content of "There was a crooked man" poem have a basis in history. The origin of this poem originates from the English Stuart history of King Charles 1. The crooked man is reputed to be the Scottish General Sir Alexander Leslie. The General signed a Covenant securing religious and political freedom for Scotland. The ’crooked stile’ referred to in "There was a crooked man" being the border between England and Scotland. ’They all lived together in a little crooked house’ refers to the fact that the English and Scots had at last come to an agreement. The words reflect the times when there was great animosity between the English and the Scots. The word crooked is pronounced as ’crookED’ the emphasis being placed upon the ’ED’ in the word. This was common in olde England and many references can be found in this type of pronunciation in the
works of William Shakespeare (1564-1616).

29/05/2009 10:37 miprimerzarzablog #. ENGLISH No hay comentarios. Comentar.

I love this great song sung by Grover (known as Coco in Spain) made in 1990.

See if you can sing it along.

 

27/05/2009 22:03 miprimerzarzablog #. ENGLISH Hay 1 comentario.

Nursery Rhyme: BAA BAA BLACK SHEEP

Baa Baa Black Sheep Rhyme

Baa baa black sheep, have you any wool?
Yes sir, yes sir, three bags full!
One for the master, one for the dame,
And one for the little boy who lives down the lane.

"Baa, baa black sheep" Nursery Rhyme History

Educational reasons for the poem "Baa, baa black sheep"poem
The reason to the words and history to this song were to associate wool and wool products with the animal that produces it, not to mention the sound that a sheep would make! The first grasp of language for a child or baby is to imitate the sounds or noises that animals make - onomatopoeia (words sound like their meaning e.g. baa baa in "Baa, baa black sheep"). In some of the earlier versions of "Baa, baa black sheep" the title is actually given as "Ba, ba black sheep" - it is difficult to spell sounds!

The earliest publication date for the "Baa, baa black sheep" rhyme or poem is dated 1744. Music was first published for "Baa, baa black sheep" was in the early nineteenth century making it into a song for children.

22/05/2009 09:44 miprimerzarzablog #. ENGLISH Hay 4 comentarios.

STORY PLACE

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As we know you all love books and nice stories here is a link in which you can hear on line stories.

Click on the following link to find your digital library in English and Spanish.

The children’s digital library

18/05/2009 14:07 miprimerzarzablog #. ENGLISH No hay comentarios. Comentar.

Nursery Rhyme: WEE WILLIE WINKIE

Wee Willie Winkie rhyme poem

Wee Willie Winkie runs through the town,
Upstairs and downstairs in his nightgown,
Tapping at the window and crying through the lock,
Are all the children in their beds, it’s past eight o’clock?

The origin of the Wee Willie Winkie rhyme

The explanation of the words to Wee Willie Winkie was to teach children to associate every day tasks with their own lives. Before the days of the wireless, television and the Internet great reliance was put upon the Town Crier to pass on the latest news and information. ’Wee Willie Winkie’ was the children’s version of the Town Crier! The author of the poem was William Miller (1810 - 1872) and the first publication date of the words to Wee Willie Winkie was in 1841.

15/05/2009 10:51 miprimerzarzablog #. ENGLISH Hay 4 comentarios.

NEW LINK / NUEVO ENLACE

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We have just made a new link to a website in which you would be able to translate your texts into lots of different languages and to listen how they sound.

Hope you find it helpful!

Acabamos de crear un nuevo enlace a una página web en la que podréis traducir vuestros textos a un montón de idiomas y escuchar cómo suenan.

Esperamos que os parezca útil.

10/05/2009 21:35 miprimerzarzablog #. ENGLISH Hay 4 comentarios.

Nursery Rhyme: MARY, MARY, QUITE CONTRARY

Mary Mary Quite Contrary

Mary Mary quite contrary,
How does your garden grow?
With silver bells and cockle shells
And pretty maids all in a row.

Nursery Rhyme Origins & History

The origins are steeped in history... Bloody Mary!
The Mary alluded to in this traditional English nursery rhyme is reputed to be Mary Tudor, or Bloody Mary, who was the daughter of King Henry VIII. Queen Mary was a staunch Catholic and the garden referred to is an allusion to graveyards which were increasing in size with those who dared to continue to adhere to the Protestant faith - Protestant martyrs.

08/05/2009 09:45 miprimerzarzablog #. ENGLISH No hay comentarios. Comentar.

ON-LINE ENGLISH ACTIVITIES

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Here you have a few activities to review the concepts and the vocabulary you already know, and to improve your listening skills.

Hope you enjoy them!

Birthday Party

My things

05/05/2009 23:29 miprimerzarzablog #. ENGLISH No hay comentarios. Comentar.

3rd May: MOTHER'S DAY

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When is Mother’s Day 2009?

Mother’s Day was celebrated on 22nd March in the UK, it is celebrated on 3rd May in Spain and will be celebrated on 10th May in the USA.

Use this poem to make a card for Mother’s Day in case you haven’t got one already.

"Every mouse
and bumblebee
Every bird
up in a tree,
Every caterpillar
and ladybug,
Love’s to feel
his mother’s hug.

Every bear
so fat and funny
Loves his mother
More than honey.
Just as woodland creatures do
I love my mother
Oh yes I do!"

Mother’s Day Crafts and Activities for Kids

02/05/2009 17:40 miprimerzarzablog #. ENGLISH Hay 2 comentarios.

Nursery Rhyme: CACKLE, CACKLE, MOTHER GOOSE

Cackle, Cackle, Mother Goose

Cackle, cackle, Mother Goose,
Have you any feathers loose?
Truly have I, pretty fellow,
Half enough to fill a pillow.
Here are quills, take one or two,
And down to make a bed for you.

Nursery Rhyme origins and history

The old nursery rhyme ’Cackle, cackle, Mother Goose’ clearly describes to a child the various usage that a goose has to offer - but why Mother Goose? The Origins of Mother Goose and the Identity of Mother Goose gives some answers to this question!  The phrase ’ Mother Goose ’ probably originates from the 1600’s - which coincides with the era of the great witch hunts. Comparisons can be made between  Mother Goose the popular conception of a witch during this period! The old illustration below of Mother Goose depicts an old crone, or witch, flying on a goose (instead of a broomstick). The first line of the Nursery Rhyme is ’Cackle, cackle, Mother Goose’  - descriptions of witches generally include reference to her ’cackle’. This word originally described the noise that a goose would make. More interesting information regarding the connection between Mother Goose and the witch can be via the above links.

30/04/2009 16:25 miprimerzarzablog #. ENGLISH No hay comentarios. Comentar.

Nursery Rhyme: LITTLE MISS MUFFET

Little Miss Muffet

Little Miss Muffet sat on a tuffet
Eating her curds and whey,
Along came a spider,
Who sat down beside her
And frightened Miss Muffet away.

Nursery Rhyme & History

Story of the Little Miss Muffet Rhyme
Little Miss Muffet was a small girl whose name was Patience Muffet. Her stepfather, Dr. Muffet (1553-1604) was a famous entomologist who wrote the first scientific catalogue of British Insects. Whilst eating her breakfast of curds and whey Little Miss Muffet was frightened by one of his spiders and ran away! This particular Nursery Rhyme of Little Miss Muffet reputedly dates back to the late 16th century as indicated by the birth date of Dr Muffet! Unlikely story about Patience Muffet!

24/04/2009 11:02 miprimerzarzablog #. ENGLISH Hay 1 comentario.

Nursery Rhyme: HICKORY DICKORY DOCK

Hickory Dickory Dock rhyme

Hickory dickory dock
The mouse ran up the clock
The clock struck one
The mouse ran down
Hickory dickory dock

Hickory, Dickory Dock

Nursery Rhyme & History

Action Rhyme reflected in the words of "Hickory, Dickory Dock"
A nonsense poem which uses alliteration where children mimic the sound of a clock chiming at the relevant point in the song. Hickory, dickory dock is intended to introduce children to the fundamentals of telling the time. Hickory, dickory dock is also known by another title "Hickory, dickory doc" inevitable perhaps due to the nonsensical nature of the words of Hickory, dickory dock! The first publication date for the "Hickory, dickory dock" rhyme is 1744. Investigation into the meanings of the words used in the rhyme lead us to believe that it has its origins in America.

17/04/2009 11:26 miprimerzarzablog #. ENGLISH No hay comentarios. Comentar.

Nursery Rhyme: HUMPTY DUMPTY

Humpty Dumpty poem

Humpty Dumpty sat on a wall,
Humpty Dumpty had a great fall.
All the King’s horses, And all the King’s men
Couldn’t put Humpty together again!

The History and Origins of the Rhyme
Humpty Dumpty was in fact believed to be a large cannon! It was used during the English Civil War ( 1642 - 1649) in the Siege of Colchester (13 Jun 1648 - 27 Aug 1648). Colchester was strongly fortified by the Royalists and was laid to siege by the Parliamentarians (Roundheads). In 1648 the town of C
olchester was a walled town with a castle and several churches and was protected by the city wall. Standing immediately adjacent the city wall, was St Mary’s Church. A huge cannon, colloquially called Humpty Dumpty, was strategically placed on the wall next to St Mary’s Church.

02/04/2009 11:41 miprimerzarzablog #. ENGLISH No hay comentarios. Comentar.

Nursery Rhyme: SING A SONG OF SIXPENCE

Sing a song of sixpence

Sing a song of sixpence a pocket full of rye,
Four and twenty blackbirds baked in a pie.
When the pie was opened they all began to sing,
Now wasn’t that a dainty dish to set before the king?
The king was in his counting house counting out his money,
The queen was in the parlour eating bread and honey
The maid was in the garden hanging out the clothes,
Along down came a blackbird and pecked off her nose.

Nursery Rhyme & History

Action words to the poem " Sing a song of sixpence" Rhyme with some history!
Lovely words to this children’s action nursery rhyme which is often referred to as blackbirds baked in a pie probably because the image that blackbirds baked in a pie would create in a child’s mind . The rye ( a pocketful of rye) was purchased to feed birds. Blackbirds, and other song birds, were actually eaten as a delicacy! However a court jester may well have suggested to the court cook to bake a pie pastry crust and place this over some live blackbirds to surprise and amuse the King! It would not be unreasonable for the blackbirds to look for revenge hence "When down came a blackbird and pecked off her nose!" It is interesting to note that the references to the counting house and eating honey were the common man’s perception of what a King and Queen spent their time doing. The nursery rhyme Sing a song of sixpence or blackbirds baked in a pie always end with the tweaking of a child’s nose!

27/03/2009 10:53 miprimerzarzablog #. ENGLISH Hay 3 comentarios.

Nursery Rhyme: LONDON BRIDGE IS FALLING DOWN

London bridge is falling down

London Bridge is falling down,
Falling down, falling down,
London Bridge is falling down,
My fair Lady.


Build it up with wood and clay,
Wood and clay, wood and clay,
Build it up with wood and clay,
My fair Lady.

Wood and clay will wash away,
Wash away, wash away,
Wood and clay will wash away,
My fair Lady.

Build it up with iron and steel,
Iron and steel, iron and steel,
Build it up with iron and steel,
My fair Lady.

Iron and steel will bend and bow,
Bend and bow, bend and bow,
Iron and steel will bend and bow,
My fair Lady.


Build it up with bricks and mortar,
Bricks and mortar, bricks and mortar,
Build it up with bricks and mortar,
My fair Lady.

Bricks and mortar will not stay,
Will not stay, will not stay,
Bricks and mortar will not stay,
My fair Lady.


Build it up with silver and gold,
Silver and gold, silver and gold,
Build it up with silver and gold,
My fair Lady.

Silver and gold will be stolen away,
Stolen away, stolen away,
Silver and gold will be stolen away,
My fair Lady.

The Wooden Bridge
The ’London Bridge is falling down’ Nursery Rhyme is based on the one of the most famous landmarks in London. It’s history can be traced to the Roman occupation of England in the first century. The first London Bridge was made of wood and clay and was fortified or re-built with the various materials mentioned in the children’s nursery rhyme. Many disasters struck the bridges - Viking invaders destroyed the bridge in the 1000’s which led to a fortified design, complete with a drawbridge. Building materials changed due to the many fires that broke out on the bridge.

18/03/2009 12:44 miprimerzarzablog #. ENGLISH Hay 4 comentarios.

SAINT PATRICK'S DAY

Here you have a cartoon video about the history of the boy and man who became Saint Patrick, the patron of Ireland.

Enjoy it!!

17/03/2009 10:49 miprimerzarzablog #. ENGLISH No hay comentarios. Comentar.

17th March: SAINT PATRICK'S DAY

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Next Tuesday it’s Saint Patrick’s Day.

Don’t forget to wear something GREEN that day. Guiño

13/03/2009 15:22 miprimerzarzablog #. ENGLISH No hay comentarios. Comentar.

Nursery Rhyme: THE MAN IN THE MOON

The man in the moon

The man in the moon,

Looked out of the moon,

Looked out of the moon and said:

"Now that I’m getting up

it’s time all children went to bed!"

13/03/2009 10:27 miprimerzarzablog #. ENGLISH Hay 1 comentario.

The Elephant Song

Hi kids!!

Do you remember this song from last year?

I’ve just came across it by chance and wanted to share it with you. I’m sure you’ll love to hear and watch it again.

Enjoy it!

10/03/2009 14:44 miprimerzarzablog #. ENGLISH Hay 8 comentarios.

Nursery Rhyme: MARY HAD A WHITE LAMB

Mary had a little lamb

Mary had a little lamb its fleece was white as snow;
And everywhere that Mary went, the lamb was sure to go.
It followed her to school one day, which was against the rule;
It made the children laugh and play, to see a lamb at school.
And so the teacher turned it out, but still it lingered near,
And waited patiently about till Mary did appear.
"Why does the lamb love Mary so?" the eager children cry;
"Why, Mary loves the lamb, you know" the teacher did reply.

Mary had a little lamb - use of language
The words of the American nursery rhyme Mary had a little lamb would appeal to a small children and introduces imagery of similes (white as snow) as part of use of the English language. The words also convey the hopeful adage that love is reciprocated! No specific historical connection can be traced to the words of
Mary had a little lamb but it can be confirmed that the song Mary had a little lamb is American as the words were written by Sarah Hale, of Boston, in 1830. An interesting historical note about this rhyme - the words of Mary had a Little Lamb were the first ever recorded by Thomas Edison, on tin foil, on his phonograph.

06/03/2009 10:40 miprimerzarzablog #. ENGLISH Hay 1 comentario.

Nursery Rhyme: THERE WAS AN OLD WOMAN

There was an Old Woman

There was an old woman who lived in a shoe,
She had so many children she didn’t know what to do!
So she gave them some broth without any bread,
And she whipped them all soundly and sent them to bed!

There are two choices of origin!
The first relates to Queen Caroline (There was an old woman) wife of King George II who had eight children. The second version refers to King George who began the men’s fashion for wearing white powdered wigs. He was consequently referred to as the old woman! The children were the members of parliament and the bed was the Houses of Parliament - even today the term ’whip’ is used in the English Parliament to describe a member of Parliament who is tasked to ensure that all members ’toe the party line’. As a point of historical interest the wigs worn by women of the period were so large and unhygienic that it became necessary to include mousetraps in their construction!

27/02/2009 15:24 miprimerzarzablog #. ENGLISH No hay comentarios. Comentar.

ROBIN HOOD: Theatre Play on Tuesday 3rd March

Summary of the play by IPA Productions:

England has a problem: the Sheriff of Nottingham, the rich and greedy tax collector. Our valiant hero, Robin Hood is convinced he is the only one who can save the country. With bow, arrow and sword he heroically fights in the name of justice. He is brave. He is fearless. Unfortunately he is also wrong!

Here is a video with scenes from the Disney’s film with a nice song (Bitter Sweet Symphony by The Verve). I love it!

24/02/2009 00:07 miprimerzarzablog #. ENGLISH No hay comentarios. Comentar.

WHO'S BEHIND THE MASK?

Fun for all of us! Can you work out who is hiding behind the masks.

Music is Radetzky March by Johann Strauss.

Enjoy it!

23/02/2009 15:46 miprimerzarzablog #. ENGLISH No hay comentarios. Comentar.

Nursery Rhyme: HEY DIDDLE DIDDLE

Hey diddle diddle rhyme

Hey diddle diddle, the cat and the fiddle,
The cow jumped over the moon.
The little dog laughed to see such sport
And the dish ran away with the spoon!

Imaginative words to the Hey diddle diddle rhyme!
Hey diddle diddle is a fantasy rhyme designed to delight children with impossible images such "the Cow jumped over the Moon"! Walt Disney’s team of animators use this type of imagery in animated films to great effect! The term ’ Hey diddle diddle’ can be found in the works of Shakespeare and was a colloquialism used in much the same vein as "hey nonny no" which can be found in traditional English folk ballads. The original title was ’High Diddle Diddle’ but this has been altered to ’Hey Diddle Diddle’ over the years with changes to the English language. The first known date of publication for the words of the Hey diddle diddle rhyme is 1765.

20/02/2009 13:16 miprimerzarzablog #. ENGLISH Hay 1 comentario.

Valentine's Poem: ROSES ARE RED

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Roses are red,

                    Violets are blue.

Sugar is sweet,

                    And so are you!

13/02/2009 16:41 miprimerzarzablog #. ENGLISH Hay 4 comentarios.

Nursery Rhyme: HOT CROSS BUNS

Hot Cross Buns nursery rhyme

Hot cross buns! Hot cross buns!
One a penny two a penny - Hot cross buns
If you have no daughters, give them to your sons
One a penny two a penny - Hot cross buns

06/02/2009 13:20 miprimerzarzablog #. ENGLISH Hay 4 comentarios.

Nursery Rhyme: JACK AND JILL

Jack and Jill: lyrics

Jack and Jill went up the hill to fetch a pail of water
Jack fell down and broke his crown
And Jill came tumbling after.


Up got Jack, and home did trot As fast as he could caper
He went to bed and bound his head
With vinegar and brown paper.

French (history) connection!
The roots of this child’s nursery rhyme is in France and the Jack and Jill referred to are Louis XVI who was beheaded (lost his crown) followed by his Queen Marie Antoinette (who came tumbling after). The words and lyrics were made more palatable for the nursery by giving it a happy ending and has further been altered by the passage of time - the actual beheadings occurred in 1793. The first publication date for the lyrics of this nursery rhyme is 1795 which tie-in
with the history and origins

29/01/2009 10:22 miprimerzarzablog #. ENGLISH No hay comentarios. Comentar.

Nursery Rhyme: RUB-A-DUB-DUB

Rub-a-dub-dub: Lyrics

Rub-a-dub-dub

Three men in a tub,

And how do you think they got there?

The butcher, the baker,

the candlestick maker,

They all jumped out of a rotten potato,

’Twas enough to make a man stare.

This is another traditional English nursery rhyme. Traditional songs and rhymes may have different lyrics in different places. Even though we are singing the same song, our lyrics and the ones in the video are not the same.

23/01/2009 14:17 miprimerzarzablog #. ENGLISH Hay 1 comentario.

Nursery Rhyme:THIS LITTLE PIGGY

This little piggy: lyrics

This little piggy went to market,
This little piggy stayed at home,
This little piggy had roast beef,
This little piggy had none.
And this little piggy cried...
"Wee wee wee wee" all the way home...

Finger or toe rhyme for "This little piggy"!

Action nursery rhyme for baby or young children.
The lyrics for this particular nursery rhyme include action based words where the little piggy is each one of the child’s toes! The last line is used to accompany the child being tickled by the teller of the rhyme! This is a typical rhyme which will be passed down from one generation to another - it has no origins in history! The lyrics for this nursery rhyme were first published in 1728.

 

21/01/2009 13:55 miprimerzarzablog #. ENGLISH Hay 11 comentarios.

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