1. Why does the body need nutrients and oxygen? How are they carried around our bodies?
The body needs nutrients and oxygen to live. They are carried around our bodies by the circulatory system.
2. What does the body do with the substances it doesn’t need or which are harmful?
It eliminates them by the digestive and the excretory system.
3. What does the circulatory system do?
The circulatory system takes oxygen and nutrients to all the tissues of the body, it also picks up waste products like carbon dioxide, and it takes them to organs that eliminate them.
4. Which systems are involved in the process of waste elimination?
The digestive system and the excretory system are involved in the process of waste elimination.
5. Explain: pulmonary circulation and general circulation.
Blood flows around the body in two different circuits: pulmonary circulation and general circulation.
During pulmonary circulation, blood flows from the heart to the lungs. In the lungs, the blood releases carbon dioxide and picks up oxygen. Then the blood flows back to the heart. This oxygenated blood is a bright red colour.
During general circulation, oxygenated blood flows from the heart to the rest of the body. The oxygen goes into the tissues of the body and the blood picks up carbon dioxide. Then the blood flows back to the heart. This deoxygenated blood is a dark red colour.
6. What is the difference between oxygenated blood and deoxygenated blood?
The oxygenated blood is a bright red colour and the deoxygenated blood is a dark red colour.
7. What does the blood carry? What does it contains?
The blood carries oxygen to the heart and carbon dioxide to the lungs.
The blood contains liquid plasma and solid blood cells.
8. How many types of blood cells are there? Name them and say what their functions are.
There are three types of blood cells: red blood cells, white blood cells and platelets.
The red blood cells carry oxygen and also contain some carbon dioxide.
The white blood cells fight infections in the body.
The platelets help to form a solid clot when there is a cut in a blood vessel.
9. Where do the blood vessels go?
The blood vessels are special tubes that carry blood all around the body.
10. Which blood vessels carry blood to the right atrium?
The pulmonary veins carry blood to the right atrium.
11. What are the capillaries?
Capillaries are tiny blood vessels that connect the smallest arteries to the smallest veins.
12. How many chambers has the heart got? How are they called?
The heart contains four open spaces called chambers. The two upper chambers are the right atrium and the left atrium. The two lower chambers are the right ventricle and the left ventricle.
13. Which chamber of the heart pumps blood around the body?
The ventricles pump blood out of the body.
14. What does the septum do?
The septum divides the heart into two sides: right and left.
15. Where does blood pick up oxygen?
The blood picks up oxygen in the lungs.
16. What are the functions of the excretory system? Name the two main parts of the excretory system.
The excretory system eliminates waste products and harmful substances from the body.
The two main parts of the excretory system are the sweat glands and the urinary tract.
17. What do sweat glands do? What does sweat contain?
Sweat glands produce sweat which is a liquid that contains water, waste products and mineral salts.
18. What are the main parts of the urinary tract? And what are their functions?
The main parts of the urinary tract are the kidneys, the ureters, the bladder and the urethra.
19. Explain the process of eliminating waste products and harmful substances through the urinary tract.
The kidneys filter the blood to remove waste. Then they mix the waste with water to produce urine. The ureters carry urine from your kidneys to your bladder. The bladder stores urine until you go to the toilet. The urethra carries the urine out of your body when you go to the toilet.
20.Where are the kidneys? What vessels carry blood to the kidneys?
The kidneys are two bean-shaped organs that are next to your spinal column.
The vessels that carry blood to the kidneys are the renal arteries.
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