1. What is a cell? What are the main functions it performs?
The cell is the smallest unit of life (the smallest living unit of the human body).
Like all living things, it performs the basic life processes of nutrition, interaction and reproduction.
2. What do groups of cell form? Name and explain what the functions of the different tissues are.
Groups of similar cells that work together form tissues.
Different tissues perform specific functions in the body:
- Skin tissue covers the outside of the body.
- Fat, or adipose tissue, stores fats for energy.
- Bone tissue forms bones and supports the body.
- Muscle tissue moves the different body parts.
- Nervous tissue transmits information around the body and coordinates the body’s functions.
3. What do groups of tissues form? Name five of them.
Groups of tissues that work together to perform different functions form organs. For example: the brain, the stomach, the liver, the heart and the lungs.
4. What do groups of organs form? Name a few of them.
Groups of organs that work together to perform the same function form systems that perform the basic life processes of nutrition, interaction and reproduction. For example: the digestive system, the respiratory system, the nervous system and the male and female reproductive systems.
5. What are the basic life processes different organs perform? Classify the systems each basic life process belongs to.
The basic life processes different organs perform are nutrition, interaction and reproduction.
Nutrition process: digestive system, respiratory system, circulatory system and excretory system.
Interaction process: muscular system, skeletal system, nervous system and endocrine system.
Reproduction process: female and male reproductive systems.
6. Which are the parts of the digestive system? Name them in order.
The digestive system includes the alimentary canal and various glands that produce digestive juices. The parts of the digestive system are:
- Salivary glands
- Gall bladder
- Small intestine
- Large intestine
7. Where does digestion start? Explain it.
Digestion starts in the mouth, where our teeth cut and crush the food. Then the tongue mixes the food with saliva and forms a soft ball called bolus. The bolus goes to the pharynx and down the esophagus to the stomach.
8. How many parts has the small intestine got?
The small intestine has got three parts: the duodenum, the jejunum and the ileum.
9. Which part of the body produces saliva?
The salivary glands produce the liquid called saliva.
10. Where does the body store bile?
The bile is produced in the liver and stored in the gall bladder.
11. Define: bolus, chyme and chyle.
Bolus is the soft ball produced in our mouth when the food (which is cut and crushed by our teeth) is mixed with saliva.
When the stomach mixes the bolus with gastric juices it changes into a thick paste called chyme.
In our small intestine, the chyme mixes with intestinal juice, bile and pancreatic juice, producing a thin paste called chyle.
12. What are the five most important nutrients for our body. Explain why each one is important.
The five most important nutrients for our body are:
- Carbohydrates: our body breaks down carbohydrates into sugar for energy.
- Fats, which help our body to grown and stay warm. Our body stores fats for extra energy.
- Proteins: our body uses proteins to grow and repair tissues, like muscles and skin.
- Vitamins and minerals: our body needs vitamins and minerals to work properly and stay healthy.
- And water which is essential for our body.
13. Which food contains fat? How many portions should we eat a day?
We can get fats from oil, butter and cheese. We should eat 3 portions of fats a day.
14. What do pasta and bread contain? How many portions should we eat a day?
Pasta and bread contain carbohydrates. We should eat 6 portions of carbohydrates a day.
15. Which foods have got lots of proteins in? How many portions should we eat a day?
We get proteins form meat, fish, eggs, dairy products, beans and nuts. We should eat 2 portions a day.
16. Which foods have got lots of vitamins in? How many portions should we eat a day?
Fresh fruit and vegetables have got lots of vitamins (and minerals). We should eat 5 portions a day.
17. What does a healthy diet include?
A healthy diet should include all the nutrients that our body needs. This depends on your age, your sex and how much physical activity you do.
18. Which are the parts of the respiratory system? Name them in order.
The respiratory system has got various parts:
- Nasal passages
19. Which are the two actions breathing includes? Name and explain them.
Breathing includes two different actions:
- Inhalation: when you breathe in. The diaphragm moves down and the rib cage expands. This pulls air into the lungs.
- Exhalation: when you breathe out. The diaphragm moves up and the rib cage contracts. This pushes air out of the lungs.
20. Name and explain the exchange of gases that occurs when breathing.
When you breathe in, the air goes to your alveoli. The oxygen in the air goes through the walls of your alveoli and into your capillaries. Then your blood carries the oxygen to all the cells in your body.
Your blood also takes carbon dioxide away from your cells. In your lungs, this carbon dioxide goes through the walls of your capillaries and into your alveoli. Then it leaves your body when you breathe out.
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