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REPORTED SPEECH

What is reported speech?

Reported speech is when you tell somebody else what you or a person said before.

 

Direct speech vs Reported speech:

Direct speechReported speech
She says: "I like tuna fish."She says that she likes tuna fish.
She said: "I’m visiting Paris next weekend"She said that she was visiting Paris the following weekend.

Different types of sentences

When you use reported speech, you either report:

  • Statements
  • questions
  • requests / commands
  • other types

A. Reporting Statements

When transforming statements, check whether you have to change:

  • pronouns
  • tense
  • place and time expression

1- Pronouns

In reported speech, you often have to change the pronoun depending on who says what.

Example:

She says, “My dad likes roast chicken.” – She says that her dad likes roast chicken.

2- Tenses

  • If the sentence starts in the present, there is no backshift of tenses in Reported speech.
  • If the sentence starts in the past, there is often backshift of tenses in Reported speech.
 Direct speechReported speech
(no backshift)“I write poems.”He says that he writes poems.
(backshift)“I write poems.”
He said that he wrote poems.

No backshift

Do not change the tense if the introductory clause is in a present tense (e. g. He says). Note, however, that you might have to change the form of the present tense verb (3rd person singular).

Example:
He says, “I write poems.” – He says that he writes English.

Backshift

You must change the tense if the introductory clause is in a past tense (e. g. He said).

Example:
He said, “I am happy.” – He said that he was happy.

Examples of the main changes in tense:

Direct SpeechReported Speech
Simple Present
He said: "I am happy."
Simple Past
He said that he was happy.
Present Progressive
He said: "I’m looking for my keys."
Past Progressive
He said that he was looking for his keys.
Simple Past
He said: "I visited New York last year." 
Past Perfect Simple
He said that he had visited New York the previous year.
Present Perfect 
He said: "I’ve lived here for a long time."
Past Perfect 
He said that he had lived there for a long time.
Past Perfect 
He said: "They had finished the work when I arrived."
Past Perfect 
He said that they had finished the work when he had arrived."
Past Progressive
He said: "I was playing football when the accident occurred."
Past Perfect Progressive
He said that he had been playing football when the accident had occurred.
Present Perfect Progressive
He said:"I have been playing football for two hours."
Past Perfect Progressive
He said that he had been playing football for two hours.
Past Perfect Progressive
He said: "I had been reading a newspaper when the light went off."
Past Perfect Progressive
He said that he had been reading a newspaper when the light had gone off.
Future Simple (will+verb)
He said: "I will open the door."
Conditional (would+verb)
He said that he would open the door.
Conditional (would+verb)
He said: "I would buy a castle if I were rich"
Conditional (would+verb)
He said that he would buy a castle if he had been rich.

The verbs could, should, would, might, must, needn’t, ought to, used to do not normally change.
Example:
He said, “She might be right.” – He said that she might be right.

3- Place, demonstratives and time expressions

Place, demonstratives and time expressions change if the context of the reported statement (i.e. the location and/or the period of time) is different from that of the direct speech.

In the following table, you will find the different changes of place; demonstratives and time expressions.

Direct SpeechReported Speech
Time Expressions
todaythat day
nowthen
yesterdaythe day before
… days ago… days before
last weekthe week before
next yearthe following year
tomorrowthe next day / the following day
Place
herethere
Demonstratives
thisthat
thesethose

 

B. Reporting Questions

When transforming questions, check whether you have to change:

  • pronouns
  • place and time expressions
  • tenses (backshift)

Also note that you have to:

  • transform the question into an indirect question
  • use the question word (where, when, what, how) or if / whether
Types of questionsDirect speechReported speech
With question word (what, why, where, how...)"Why don’t you speak English?”He asked me why I didn’t speak English.
Without question word (yes or no questions)“Do you speak English?”He asked me whether / if I spoke English.
  
 

C. Reporting requests / commands

When transforming requests and commands, check whether you have to change:

  • pronouns
  • place and time expressions
Direct speechReported speech
“Nancy,do the exercise.“He told Nancy to do the exercise.
"Nancy, give me your pen, please."He asked Nancy to give him her pen.


Example:

She said, “Sit down." - She asked me to sit down.

She said, "don’t be lazy" - She asked me not to be lazy

For affirmative use to + infinitive (without to)

For negative requests, use not to + infinitive (without to).

  
 

D. Other transformations

  • Expressions of advice with mustshould and ought are usually reported using advise / urge.
    Example:
    “You must read this book.“
    He advised / urged me to read that book.
  • The expression let’s is usually reported using suggest. In this case, there are two possibilities for reported speech: gerund or statement with should.
    Example:
    “Let’s go to the cinema.“=
    1. He suggested going to the cinema.
    2. He suggested that we should go to the cinema.
  
 

Exercises on the reported speech

 

http://www.myenglishpages.com/

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Can you...?

Move the wheel... Can you say three things about these characters??

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KET & PET for Schools Extra Practice

If you want to have extra practice for your external examinations, visit the following pages:

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RELATIVE PRONOUNS

 

SubjectObjectPossessive
whowho(m)whose
whichwhichwhose
thatthat 

 

We use who and whom for people, and which for things.
Or we can use that for people or things.

We use relative pronouns:

• after a noun, to make it clear which person or thing we are talking about:

the house that Jack built
the woman who discovered radium
an eight-year-old boy who attempted to rob a sweet shop

 to tell us more about a person or thing:

My mother, who was born overseas, has always been a great traveller.
Lord Thompson, who is 76, has just retired.
We had fish and chips, which is my favourite meal.

But we do not use that as a subject in this kind of relative clause.

We use whose as the possessive form of who:

This is George, whose brother went to school with me.

We sometimes use whom as the object of a verb or preposition:

This is George, whom you met at our house last year.
This is George’s brother, with whom I went to school.

But nowadays we normally use who:

This is George, who you met at our house last year.
This is George’s brother, who I went to school with.

When whom or which have a preposition the preposition can come at the beginning of the clause...

I had an uncle in Germany, from who[m] I inherited a bit of money.
We bought a chainsaw, with which we cut up all the wood.

… or at the end of the clause:

I had an uncle in Germany who[m] I inherited a bit of money from.
We bought a chainsaw, which we cut all the wood up with.

We can use that at the beginning of the clause:

I had an uncle in Germany that I inherited a bit of money from.
We bought a chainsaw that we cut all the wood up with.

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PASSIVE VOICE

Use of Passive

Passive voice is used when the focus is on the action. It is not important or not known, however, who or what is performing the action.

Example: My bike was stolen.

In the example above, the focus is on the fact that my bike was stolen. I do not know, however, who did it.

Sometimes a statement in passive is more polite than active voice, as the following example shows:

Example: A mistake was made.

In this case, I focus on the fact that a mistake was made, but I do not blame anyone (e.g. You have made a mistake.).

Form of Passive

Subject + finite form of to be + Past Participle (3rd column of irregular verbs)

Example: A letter was written.

When rewriting active sentences in passive voice, note the following:

  • the object of the active sentence becomes the subject of the passive sentence
  • the finite form of the verb is changed (to be + past participle)
  • the subject of the active sentence becomes the object of the passive sentence (or is dropped)

Examples of Passive 

TenseSubjectVerbObject
Simple PresentActive:Ritawritesa letter.
Passive:A letteris writtenby Rita.
Simple PastActive:Ritawrotea letter.
Passive:A letterwas writtenby Rita.
Present PerfectActive:Ritahas writtena letter.
Passive:A letterhas been writtenby Rita.
Future IActive:Ritawill writea letter.
Passive:A letterwill be writtenby Rita.
Modal verbActive:Ritacan writea letter.
Passive:A lettercan be writtenby Rita.

Examples of Passive 

TenseSubjectVerbObject
Present ProgressiveActive:Ritais writinga letter.
Passive:A letteris being writtenby Rita.
Past ProgressiveActive:Ritawas writinga letter.
Passive:A letterwas being writtenby Rita.
Past PerfectActive:Ritahad writtena letter.
Passive:A letterhad been writtenby Rita.
Future IIActive:Ritawill have writtena letter.
Passive:A letterwill have been writtenby Rita.
Conditional IActive:Ritawould writea letter.
Passive:A letterwould be writtenby Rita.
Conditional IIActive:Ritawould have writtena letter.
Passive:A letterwould have been writtenby Rita.

Personal and Impersonal Passive

Personal Passive simply means that the object of the active sentence becomes the subject of the passive sentence. So every verb that needs an object (transitive verb) can form a personal passive.

Example: They build houses. – Houses are built.

Verbs without an object (intransitive verb) normally cannot form a personal passive sentence (as there is no object that can become the subject of the passive sentence). If you want to use an intransitive verb in passive voice, you need an impersonal construction – therefore this passive is called Impersonal Passive.

Example: he says – it is said

Impersonal Passive is not as common in English as in some other languages (e.g. German, Latin). In English, Impersonal Passive is only possible with verbs of perception (e. g. say, think, know).

Example: They say that women live longer than men. – It is said that women live longer than men.

Although Impersonal Passive is possible here, Personal Passive is more common.

Example: They say that women live longer than men. – Women are said to live longer than men.

The subject of the subordinate clause (women) goes to the beginning of the sentence; the verb of perception is put into passive voice. The rest of the sentence is added using an infinitive construction with ’to’ (certain auxiliary verbs and that are dropped).

Sometimes the term Personal Passive is used in English lessons if the indirect object of an active sentence is to become the subject of the passive sentence.

Exercises

Exercises on Passive (Form)

Exercises on Passive (Active → Passive)

Exercises on Passive (Active or Passive)

Tests on Passive

 Information taken from https://www.ego4u.com

Passive Voice 1 and Passive Voice 2 -> Sites to study the Passive Voice.

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PRESENT PERFECT CONTINUOUS

FORM

[has/have + been + present participle]

Examples:

  • You have been waiting here for two hours.
  • Have you been waiting here for two hours?
  • You have not been waiting here for two hours.

Complete List of Present Perfect Continuous Forms

USE 1 Duration from the Past Until Now

We use the Present Perfect Continuous to show that something started in the past and has continued up until now. "For five minutes," "for two weeks," and "since Tuesday" are all durations which can be used with the Present Perfect Continuous.

Examples:

  • They have been talking for the last hour.
  • She has been working at that company for three years.
  • What have you been doing for the last 30 minutes?
  • James has been teaching at the university since June.
  • We have been waiting here for over two hours!
  • Why has Nancy not been taking her medicine for the last three days?

USE 2 Recently, Lately

You can also use the Present Perfect Continuous WITHOUT a duration such as "for two weeks." Without the duration, the tense has a more general meaning of "lately." We often use the words "lately" or "recently" to emphasize this meaning.

Examples:

  • Recently, I have been feeling really tired.
  • She has been watching too much television lately.
  • Have you been exercising lately?
  • Mary has been feeling a little depressed.
  • Lisa has not been practicing her English.
  • What have you been doing?

IMPORTANT

Remember that the Present Perfect Continuous has the meaning of "lately" or "recently." If you use the Present Perfect Continuous in a question such as "Have you been feeling alright?", it can suggest that the person looks sick or unhealthy. A question such as "Have you been smoking?" can suggest that you smell the smoke on the person. Using this tense in a question suggests you can see, smell, hear or feel the results of the action. It is possible to insult someone by using this tense incorrectly.

REMEMBER Non-Continuous Verbs/ Mixed Verbs

It is important to remember that Non-Continuous Verbs cannot be used in any continuous tenses. Also, certain non-continuous meanings for Mixed Verbs cannot be used in continuous tenses. Instead of using Present Perfect Continuous with these verbs, you must use Present Perfect.

Examples:

  • Sam has been having his car for two years. Not Correct
  • Sam has had his car for two years. Correct

ADVERB PLACEMENT

The examples below show the placement for grammar adverbs such as: always, only, never, ever, still, just, etc.

Examples:

  • You have only been waiting here for one hour.
  • Have you only been waiting here for one hour?

EXERCISES AND RELATED TOPICS

Information taken from https://www.englishpage.com

 

A SITE to study Present Perfect Continuous.

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English - Unit 3

A SITE to study unit 3 of English

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1st and 2nd Conditional Tenses

20171107211318-20161126114657-20151117113452-conditionals-28297-4-14.gif

Conditional tenses describe the result of something that might happen (in the present or future) or might have happened but didn’t (in the past).

                 

1st Conditional Tenses

IF + SUBJECT + PRESENT SIMPLE, SUBJECT + WILL + INFINITIVE

SUBJECT + WILL + INFINITIVE + IF + SUBJECT + PRESENT SIMPLE

We use the First Conditional to talk about future events that are likely to happen.

  • If we take John, he’ll be really pleased.
  • If you give me some money, I’ll pay you back tomorrow.
  • If they tell us they want it, we’ll have to give it to them.
  • If Mary comes, she’ll want to drive.  
The ’if’ clause can be used with different present forms.
  • If I go to New York again, I’ll buy you a souvenir from the Empire State Building.
  • If he’s feeling better, he’ll come.
  • If she hasn’t heard the bad news yet, I’ll tell her.

The "future clause" can contain ’going to’ or the future perfect as well as ’will’.

  • If I see him, I’m going to tell him exactly how angry I am.
  • If we don’t get the contract, we’ll have wasted a lot of time and money.

The "future clause" can also contain other modal verbs such as ’can’ and ’must’.

  • If you go to New York, you must have the cheesecake in Lindy’s.
  • If he comes, you can get a lift home with him.

exercise 1

exercise 2

exercise 3

exercise 4

exercise 5

 

2nd Conditional

IF + SUBJECT + PAST SIMPLE, SUBJECT + WOULD+ INFINITIVE

SUBJECT + WOULD + INFINITIVE + IF + SUBJECT + PAST SIMPLE

The Second Conditional is used to talk about ’impossible’ situations.

  • If we were in London today, we would be able to go to the concert in Hyde Park.
  • If I had millions dollars, I’d give a lot to charity.
  • If there were no hungry people in this world, it would be a much better place.
  • If everyone had clean water to drink, there would be a lot less disease.

After I / he/ she /it we often use the subjunctive form ’were’ and not ’was’. (Some people think that ’were’ is the only ’correct’ form but other people think ’was’ is equally ’correct’ .)

  • If she were happy in her job, she wouldn’t be looking for another one.
  • If I lived in Japan, I’d have sushi every day.
  • If they were to enter our market, we’d have big problems.

The form ’If I were you’ is often used to give advice.

  • If I were you, I’d look for a new place to live.
  • If I were you, I’d go back to school and get more qualifications.

The Second Conditional is also used to talk about ’unlikely’ situations.

  • If I went to China, I’d visit the Great Wall.
  • If I was the President, I’d reduce taxes.
  • If you were in my position, you’d understand.

The choice between the first and the second conditional is often a question of the speaker’s attitude rather than of facts. Compare these examples. Otto thinks these things are possible, Peter doesn’t.

  • Otto – If I win the lottery, I’ll buy a big house. (1st conditional)
  • Peter – If I won the lottery, I’d buy a big house. (2nd conditional)
  • Otto – If I get promoted, I’ll throw a big party. (1st conditional)
  • Peter – If I got promoted, I’d throw a big party. (2nd conditional)
  • Otto – If my team win the Cup, I’ll buy champagne for everybody. (1st conditional)
  • Peter – If my team won the Cup, I’d buy champagne for everybody. (2nd conditional)

The ’If clause’ can contain the past simple or the past continuous.

  • If I was still working in Brighton, I would commute by train.
  • If she were coming, she would be here by now.
  • If they were thinking of selling, I would want to buy.

The main clause can contain ’would’ ’could’ or ’might.

  • If I had the chance to do it again, I would do it differently.
  • If we met up for lunch, we could go to that new restaurant.
  • If I spoke to him directly, I might be able to persuade him.

Sometimes the ’if clause’ is implied rather than spoken.

  • What would I do without you? ("if you weren’t here")
  • Where would I get one at this time of night? ("if I wanted one")
  • He wouldn’t agree. ("if I asked him")

exercise 1

exercise 2

exercise 3

exercise 4

exercise 5

exercise 6

 

Information taken from https://www.englishgrammarsecrets.com/

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The Third Conditional

We make the third conditional by using the past perfect after 'if' and then 'would have' and the past participle in the second part of the sentence:

  • if + past perfect, ...would + have + past participle

 

It talks about the past. It's used to describe a situation that didn't happen, and to imagine the result of this situation.

 

  • If she had studied, she would have passed the exam (but, really we know she didn't study and so she didn't pass)
  • If I hadn't eaten so much, I wouldn't have felt sick (but I did eat a lot, and so I did feel sick).
  • If we had taken a taxi, we wouldn't have missed the plane
  • She wouldn't have been tired if she had gone to bed earlier
  • She would have become a teacher if she had gone to university
  • He would have been on time for the interview if he had left the house at nine

 

Click here for an exercise about making the third conditional

Click here for all the conditional exercises

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PAST PERFECT

FORM

[had + past participle]

Examples:

  • You had studied English before you moved to New York.
  • Had you studied English before you moved to New York?
  • You had not studied English before you moved to New York.

Complete List of Past Perfect Forms

USE 1 Completed Action Before Something in the Past

The Past Perfect expresses the idea that something occurred before another action in the past. It can also show that something happened before a specific time in the past.

Examples:

  • had never seen such a beautiful beach before I went to Kauai.
  • I did not have any money because I had lost my wallet.
  • Tony knew Istanbul so well because he had visited the city several times.
  • Had Susan ever studied Thai before she moved to Thailand?
  • She only understood the movie because she had read the book.
  • Kristine had never been to an opera before last night.
  • We were not able to get a hotel room because we had not booked in advance.
  • A: Had you ever visited the U.S. before your trip in 2006?
    B: Yes, I had been to the U.S. once before.

USE 2 Duration Before Something in the Past (Non-Continuous Verbs)

With Non-Continuous Verbs and some non-continuous uses of Mixed Verbs, we use the Past Perfect to show that something started in the past and continued up until another action in the past.

Examples:

  • We had had that car for ten years before it broke down.
  • By the time Alex finished his studies, he had been in London for over eight years.
  • They felt bad about selling the house because they had owned it for more than forty years.

Although the above use of Past Perfect is normally limited to Non-Continuous Verbs and non-continuous uses of Mixed Verbs, the words "live," "work," "teach," and "study" are sometimes used in this way even though they are NOT Non-Continuous Verbs.

IMPORTANT Specific Times with the Past Perfect

Unlike with the Present Perfect, it is possible to use specific time words or phrases with the Past Perfect. Although this is possible, it is usually not necessary.

Example:

  • She had visited her Japanese relatives once in 1993 before she moved in with them in 1996.

MOREOVER

If the Past Perfect action did occur at a specific time, the Simple Past can be used instead of the Past Perfect when "before" or "after" is used in the sentence. The words "before" and "after" actually tell you what happens first, so the Past Perfect is optional. For this reason, both sentences below are correct.

Examples:

  • She had visited her Japanese relatives once in 1993 before she moved in with them in 1996.
  • She visited her Japanese relatives once in 1993 before she moved in with them in 1996.

HOWEVER

If the Past Perfect is not referring to an action at a specific time, Past Perfect is not optional. Compare the examples below. Here Past Perfect is referring to a lack of experience rather than an action at a specific time. For this reason, Simple Past cannot be used.

Examples:

  • She never saw a bear before she moved to Alaska. Not Correct
  • She had never seen a bear before she moved to Alaska. Correct

ADVERB PLACEMENT

The examples below show the placement for grammar adverbs such as: always, only, never, ever, still, just, etc.

Examples:

  • You had previously studied English before you moved to New York.
  • Had you previously studied English before you moved to New York?

ACTIVE / PASSIVE

Examples:

  • George had repaired many cars before he received his mechanic’s license. Active
  • Many cars had been repaired by George before he received his mechanic’s license. Passive

 

EXERCISES AND RELATED TOPICS

 

 

FORM

[had + past participle]

Examples:

  • You had studied English before you moved to New York.
  • Had you studied English before you moved to New York?
  • You had not studied English before you moved to New York.

Complete List of Past Perfect Forms

USE 1 Completed Action Before Something in the Past

The Past Perfect expresses the idea that something occurred before another action in the past. It can also show that something happened before a specific time in the past.

Examples:

  • had never seen such a beautiful beach before I went to Kauai.
  • I did not have any money because I had lost my wallet.
  • Tony knew Istanbul so well because he had visited the city several times.
  • Had Susan ever studied Thai before she moved to Thailand?
  • She only understood the movie because she had read the book.
  • Kristine had never been to an opera before last night.
  • We were not able to get a hotel room because we had not booked in advance.
  • A: Had you ever visited the U.S. before your trip in 2006?
    B: Yes, I had been to the U.S. once before.

USE 2 Duration Before Something in the Past (Non-Continuous Verbs)

With Non-Continuous Verbs and some non-continuous uses of Mixed Verbs, we use the Past Perfect to show that something started in the past and continued up until another action in the past.

Examples:

  • We had had that car for ten years before it broke down.
  • By the time Alex finished his studies, he had been in London for over eight years.
  • They felt bad about selling the house because they had owned it for more than forty years.

Although the above use of Past Perfect is normally limited to Non-Continuous Verbs and non-continuous uses of Mixed Verbs, the words "live," "work," "teach," and "study" are sometimes used in this way even though they are NOT Non-Continuous Verbs.

IMPORTANT Specific Times with the Past Perfect

Unlike with the Present Perfect, it is possible to use specific time words or phrases with the Past Perfect. Although this is possible, it is usually not necessary.

Example:

  • She had visited her Japanese relatives once in 1993 before she moved in with them in 1996.

MOREOVER

If the Past Perfect action did occur at a specific time, the Simple Past can be used instead of the Past Perfect when "before" or "after" is used in the sentence. The words "before" and "after" actually tell you what happens first, so the Past Perfect is optional. For this reason, both sentences below are correct.

Examples:

  • She had visited her Japanese relatives once in 1993 before she moved in with them in 1996.
  • She visited her Japanese relatives once in 1993 before she moved in with them in 1996.

HOWEVER

If the Past Perfect is not referring to an action at a specific time, Past Perfect is not optional. Compare the examples below. Here Past Perfect is referring to a lack of experience rather than an action at a specific time. For this reason, Simple Past cannot be used.

Examples:

  • She never saw a bear before she moved to Alaska. Not Correct
  • She had never seen a bear before she moved to Alaska. Correct

ADVERB PLACEMENT

The examples below show the placement for grammar adverbs such as: always, only, never, ever, still, just, etc.

Examples:

  • You had previously studied English before you moved to New York.
  • Had you previously studied English before you moved to New York?

ACTIVE / PASSIVE

Examples:

  • George had repaired many cars before he received his mechanic’s license. Active
  • Many cars had been repaired by George before he received his mechanic’s license. Passive

More About Active / Passive Forms

EXERCISES AND RELATED TOPICS

  • Verb Tense Exercise 11 Simple Past and Past Perfect
  • Verb Tense Exercise 12 Simple Past, Present Perfect, and Past Perfect
  • Verb Tense Exercise 13 Past Perfect and Past Perfect Continuous
  • Verb Tense Exercise 14 Present Perfect, Past Perfect, Present Perfect Continuous, and Past Perfect Continuous
  • Verb Tense Exercise 16 Present and Past Tenses with Non-Continuous Verbs
  • Verb Tense Exercise 17 Present and Past Tense Review
  • Verb Tense Practice Test Cumulative Verb Tense Review
  • Verb Tense Final Test Cumulative Verb Tense Review

    FORM

    [had + past participle]

    Examples:

    • You had studied English before you moved to New York.
    • Had you studied English before you moved to New York?
    • You had not studied English before you moved to New York.

    Complete List of Past Perfect Forms

    USE 1 Completed Action Before Something in the Past

    The Past Perfect expresses the idea that something occurred before another action in the past. It can also show that something happened before a specific time in the past.

    Examples:

    • had never seen such a beautiful beach before I went to Kauai.
    • I did not have any money because I had lost my wallet.
    • Tony knew Istanbul so well because he had visited the city several times.
    • Had Susan ever studied Thai before she moved to Thailand?
    • She only understood the movie because she had read the book.
    • Kristine had never been to an opera before last night.
    • We were not able to get a hotel room because we had not booked in advance.
    • A: Had you ever visited the U.S. before your trip in 2006?
      B: Yes, I had been to the U.S. once before.

    USE 2 Duration Before Something in the Past (Non-Continuous Verbs)

    With Non-Continuous Verbs and some non-continuous uses of Mixed Verbs, we use the Past Perfect to show that something started in the past and continued up until another action in the past.

    Examples:

    • We had had that car for ten years before it broke down.
    • By the time Alex finished his studies, he had been in London for over eight years.
    • They felt bad about selling the house because they had owned it for more than forty years.

    Although the above use of Past Perfect is normally limited to Non-Continuous Verbs and non-continuous uses of Mixed Verbs, the words "live," "work," "teach," and "study" are sometimes used in this way even though they are NOT Non-Continuous Verbs.

    IMPORTANT Specific Times with the Past Perfect

    Unlike with the Present Perfect, it is possible to use specific time words or phrases with the Past Perfect. Although this is possible, it is usually not necessary.

    Example:

    • She had visited her Japanese relatives once in 1993 before she moved in with them in 1996.

    MOREOVER

    If the Past Perfect action did occur at a specific time, the Simple Past can be used instead of the Past Perfect when "before" or "after" is used in the sentence. The words "before" and "after" actually tell you what happens first, so the Past Perfect is optional. For this reason, both sentences below are correct.

    Examples:

    • She had visited her Japanese relatives once in 1993 before she moved in with them in 1996.
    • She visited her Japanese relatives once in 1993 before she moved in with them in 1996.

    HOWEVER

    If the Past Perfect is not referring to an action at a specific time, Past Perfect is not optional. Compare the examples below. Here Past Perfect is referring to a lack of experience rather than an action at a specific time. For this reason, Simple Past cannot be used.

    Examples:

    • She never saw a bear before she moved to Alaska. Not Correct
    • She had never seen a bear before she moved to Alaska. Correct

    ADVERB PLACEMENT

    The examples below show the placement for grammar adverbs such as: always, only, never, ever, still, just, etc.

    Examples:

    • You had previously studied English before you moved to New York.
    • Had you previously studied English before you moved to New York?

    ACTIVE / PASSIVE

    Examples:

    • George had repaired many cars before he received his mechanic’s license. Active
    • Many cars had been repaired by George before he received his mechanic’s license. Passive

    More About Active / Passive Forms

    EXERCISES AND RELATED TOPICS

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KET for Schools Speaking Test

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KET & PET for Schools

If you want to have extra practice for your external examinations, visit the following pages:

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RELATIVE PRONOUNS

 

SubjectObjectPossessive
whowho(m)whose
whichwhichwhose
thatthat 

 

We use who and whom for people, and which for things.
Or we can use that for people or things.

We use relative pronouns:

• after a noun, to make it clear which person or thing we are talking about:

the house that Jack built
the woman who discovered radium
an eight-year-old boy who attempted to rob a sweet shop

 to tell us more about a person or thing:

My mother, who was born overseas, has always been a great traveller.
Lord Thompson, who is 76, has just retired.
We had fish and chips, which is my favourite meal.

But we do not use that as a subject in this kind of relative clause.

We use whose as the possessive form of who:

This is George, whose brother went to school with me.

We sometimes use whom as the object of a verb or preposition:

This is George, whom you met at our house last year.
This is George’s brother, with whom I went to school.

But nowadays we normally use who:

This is George, who you met at our house last year.
This is George’s brother, who I went to school with.

When whom or which have a preposition the preposition can come at the beginning of the clause...

I had an uncle in Germany, from who[m] I inherited a bit of money.
We bought a chainsaw, with which we cut up all the wood.

… or at the end of the clause:

I had an uncle in Germany who[m] I inherited a bit of money from.
We bought a chainsaw, which we cut all the wood up with.

We can use that at the beginning of the clause:

I had an uncle in Germany that I inherited a bit of money from.
We bought a chainsaw that we cut all the wood up with.

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